- International crimes
This chapter provides an overview of the theorization of modes of liability in the context of contemporary ICC jurisprudence and scholarship. It examines the structure of Article 25, its doctrinal specificities, and its possible interpretation in light of ICC jurisprudence from the Lubanga, Katanga, and Bemba cases. It places particular emphasis on the relevance of the distinction between principal and accessorial liability and the question of whether the differentiated approach reflected in Article 25 encompasses a hierarchization of modes of liability. To give Article 25 more context and to place it in a history of liability theories attuned to system criminality, the chapter takes into account post-Second World War case-law and Tribunal law on criminal responsibility.
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