1 In political debates about the future of Europe, differentiation is regularly referred to as a model for the realization of new policy proposals. It generally means that some Member States do not participate in certain initiatives, for instance the Danish opt-out from monetary union or Irish non-participation in the Schengen area. Notwithstanding the broader concept of ‘differentiation’, we may distinguish three models of multiple speeds, federal core Europe, and flexibility à la carte (see below paras 3–13), which informed the introduction of the different...
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