1 ‘Union law requires, in addition to observance of the principles of equivalence and effectiveness, that the national legislation does not undermine the right to effective judicial protection’ (Mono Car Styling SA, para. 49). 2 In the absence of supranational rules to enforce European Union (EU) law and to ensure judicial protection of EU-derived rights, it is necessary to rely upon national legal systems and the rules of their procedural machinery. European Court of Justice (ECJ) case law has gradually, however, imposed a series of ever more stringent...
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