1 It is widely recognized that judicial actors have played a significant role in the process of European integration. The Court of Justice has spelled out the constitutional doctrines that form the cornerstone of the edifice of European Union (EU) law. Domestic courts, despite initial resistance and occasional bouts of tension, have largely embraced the basic principles of EU law, including supremacy and direct effect. Supranational judges have developed an active compliance partnership with domestic judiciaries, notably through the preliminary ruling mechanism....
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