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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law [MPEPIL]

Full Protection and Security

Eric De Brabandere

From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2023. All Rights Reserved.date: 19 May 2024

Aliens, treatment — NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) — Fair and equitable treatment standard — Full protection and security — International minimum standard — International humanitarian law — Customary international law

Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the direction of Professor Anne Peters (2021–) and Professor Rüdiger Wolfrum (2004–2020). 

1 Full protection and security (‘FPS’) as a standard of treatment of aliens can be traced back to the customary international law related to the treatment of aliens in international law. In the past decades, FPS has mostly been relevant and applied by arbitral tribunals in the context of international investment law (Investments, International Protection; International Investment Arbitration). It is a standard of treatment which one regularly finds in international investment agreements (Investments, Bilateral Treaties). 2 The traditional understanding of FPS...
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