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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law [MPEPIL]

Legitimate Expectations

Eirik Bjorge

From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2023. All Rights Reserved.date: 20 June 2024

Fair and equitable treatment standard — Good faith — Estoppel

Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the direction of Professor Anne Peters (2021–) and Professor Rüdiger Wolfrum (2004–2020). 

1 When a State makes assurances to another subject of international law in a way that leads the other legitimately to place trust and confidence in the assurances, international law will in certain circumstances protect the expectations created (Subjects of International Law). States, in their relations with others, ‘should not be allowed to cause confusion and to disappoint legitimate expectations by blowing hot and cold’ (Lauterpacht [1944] 150); the protection of legitimate expectations is a concomitant of the general requirement that States must act in their...
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