1 In 2010, Australia instituted proceedings against Japan before the International Court of Justice (ICJ), asserting that Japan violated international law by issuing special permits to kill whales. Those permits were part of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the Antarctic, called ‘JARPA II’, that took place for each whaling season since 2005–2006 until the decision of the Court. Australia argued that Japan breached its obligations under the 1946 International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (‘ICRW’). The ICJ’s judgment in the...
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