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Urgenda Foundation (on behalf of 886 individuals) v The State of the Netherlands (Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment), First instance decision, HA ZA 13-1396, C/09/456689, ECLI:NL:RBDHA:2015:7145, ILDC 2456 (NL 2015), 24th June 2015, Netherlands; The Hague; District Court

Urgenda Foundation (on behalf of 886 individuals) v The State of the Netherlands (Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment), First instance decision, HA ZA 13-1396, C/09/456689, ECLI:NL:RBDHA:2015:7145, ILDC 2456 (NL 2015), 24th June 2015, Netherlands; The Hague; District Court

From: Oxford Public International Law (http://opil.ouplaw.com). (c) Oxford University Press, 2015. All Rights Reserved.date: 20 March 2019

Whether a state had, by not sufficiently limiting the volume of annual greenhouse gas emissions, failed to meet its duty of care towards a non-governmental organization by taking into account its obligations under the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and the customary ‘no harm’ principle.

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