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Hostage Case, United States v List (Wilhelm) and ors, Trial Judgment, Case No 7, (1948) 11 TWC 757, (1950) 11 TWC 1230, (1948) 8 LRTWC 34, ICL 491 (US 1948), (1948) 15 ILR 632, 19th February 1948, International Military Tribunal [IMT]; Nuremberg Military Tribunal [NMT]

Whether international law permitted an occupying force to take hostages from the civilian population as a guarantee against attacks by unlawful resistance forces, and whether they had the right to execute these hostages in the event that a unilateral guarantee was violated.

Whether guerrilla forces were considered lawful belligerents under the Hague Convention (IV) Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land and its annex: Regulations Concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land.

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