Chemical Weapons and Warfare
- Weapons, chemical — Armed conflict, international — Reprisals — Disarmament — Conduct of hostilities
Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law under the direction of Rüdiger Wolfrum.
1 Chemical weapons can be distinguished from conventional weapons and from biological weapons ( Biological Weapons and Warfare ). Their destructive effect does not result from explosive force (as is the case with most conventional weapons) but from the toxicity of chemical agents. Toxic living organisms (eg anthrax) which are intended to cause death or severe harm to people, animals, and plants are considered biological weapons. Non-living toxic substances produced by living organisms are called toxins (eg botulinum toxin, ricin, and saxitoxin) may be considered...