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Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law [MPEPIL]

Treaties, Unequal

Anne Peters

Subject(s):
Sovereignty — Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties — Treaties, amendments and modification — Extraterritorial application of treaties — Pacta sunt servanda — Treaties, invalidity, termination, suspension, withdrawal — Treaties, successive — Customary international law — Peremptory norms / ius cogens — State practice — Writings of publicists

Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law under the direction of Rüdiger Wolfrum.

1 The pejorative term ‘unequal treaties’ (or more polemical ones such as ‘coercive’, ‘predatory’, or ‘enslaving’ treaties ) refers primarily to the bilateral treaties concluded in the second half of the 19 th and beginning of the 20 th centuries mostly, but not exclusively, between European powers, the United States, and even Latin-American States on the one hand, and on the other hand, mainly Asian States ( China , Japan, Siam, Korea , and others), but also African ones (see for overviews Li; Kleinschmidt). The concept thus symbolizes the division between the...
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