James R Crawford
- States, equality — Sovereignty — Customary international law — Self-determination — Recognition of states — States, independence
Published under the auspices of the Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law under the direction of Rüdiger Wolfrum.
1 International law originated amongst the States of Europe following the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 ( Westphalia, Peace of  ; Westphalian System ). Though international law now extends to all regions, and, in various circumstances, applies directly to individuals, private organizations, and public international organizations ( Non-State Actors ), States retain a special importance in the international legal system. Some precision as to the characteristics that make an entity a State for purposes of international law is necessary. 2 The following exclusive...