Part V The Implementation of International Responsibility, Ch.80 Countermeasures in Response to Grave Violations of Obligations Owed to the International Community
Edited By: James Crawford, Alain Pellet, Simon Olleson, Kate Parlett (Assistant)
- Responsibility of states — Wrongful acts — Countermeasures — National liberation movements — Erga omnes obligations
The question of countermeasures in response to violations of obligations representing a general interest—also characterized as ‘collective’ countermeasures—number among the most controversial subjects in the field of State responsibility. 1 There are essentially two sources of controversy. The first touches upon the view which has been formed of international responsibility. The term ‘collective countermeasures’ is understood as referring to measures which are in themselves unlawful but which could be adopted on an individual level by any State not individually...