- Human rights remedies — Armed conflict, international — Armed conflict, non-international — Belligerence — Belligerents — Military objectives — Armed forces
This chapter examines the ongoing armed conflicts in Syria between the Syrian armed forces and the Free Syrian Army (FSA), al-Nusra, and Islamic State (IS), as well as other rebel groups. The IS is also engaged in an armed conflict with Kurdish militias, and other rebel groups. In addition, the FSA is involved in a separate armed conflict with Hezbollah, which began on May 2013. The conflicts emerged in 2011 when hundreds of thousands of Syrian nationals held demonstrations calling for government reforms and the removal of President Bashar al-Assad from office. These demonstrations escalated into violent clashes between the Syrian armed forces and the FSA. Soon, al-Qaeda, in the form of al-Nusra, the IS, and Hezbollah joined the civil war against the rebel militias and against each other. The ongoing conflicts resulted in 76,021 fatalities in 2014, as documented by the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR).