- Armed conflict, international — Armed conflict, non-international — Belligerence — Belligerents — Military necessity — Humanitarian intervention — Armed forces
This chapter looks into the ongoing armed conflict in Somalia between the Federal Republic of Somalia, supported by the armed forces of Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, and the US, and al-Shabaab. It provides key casualty data gathered by the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED). All parties to the conflict are bound by customary international humanitarian law (IHL) and human rights law. Since 1991, Somalia has been without an effective central government and was under the control of warlords who owned different fiefdoms. In 2004, after talks in Kenya, the major warlords and politicians signed a deal to set up a new parliament, which later appointed a president. However, problems emerged due to the difficulty of reconciliation between the different fiefdoms and the rise of the Islamists, particularly the al-Shabaab, who took control of much of South Somalia. Conflict between the parties led to 4,447 fatalities in 2014 as reported by the ACLED.