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Counter-Terrorism - International Law and Practice edited by Salinas de Frías, Ana María; Samuel, Katja; White, Nigel D (1st January 2012)

Index

Nigel D White

From: Counter-Terrorism: International Law and Practice

Edited By: Ana María Salinas de Frías, Katja Samuel, Nigel D White

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(p. 1135) Index

Afghanistan; see also proscribed terrorist organizations; jus ad bellum 401
counter-insurgency 390, 397
Karzai, Hamid 197, 396–7, 401
North Atlantic Treaty Organization 181, 294, 397
status of conflict 76, 201–2, 431
Taliban 64, 197, 309, 400 n, 411, 895
United States of America led invasion 63, 73, 76, 181, 233, 308, 390, 396, 660
use of counter-terrorism strategy 397
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights; see also African human rights system 1025
derogation 211, 224, 860–1
fair trial 87, 849
jurisdiction 642–3
prohibition of terrorism 841, 1015–6
right to life 625, 639, 849
African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights; see also African human rights system 1015–16, 1025, 1067–8, 1080
deprivation of liberty 851–2, 861, 862
derogation in times of emergency 224, 851, 860–1
emergency powers 224
extraordinary rendition 573
fair trial 849, 853, 859, 862
independence and impartiality 853
military courts 854
freedom of expression 861–2
non-refoulement 864
obligation to enforce the African Charter 861
prohibition of torture et al 859, 861–4
relationship with the African Court 865–7
Commission submitted communications 867
transferring matters to the Court 867
right to life 849, 861–2
right to seek asylum 861, 863
role and legal framework 858–63
state reports 864
subsidiary mechanisms 862, 871
committees 864
special rapporteurs 862–3
working groups 862–3
African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights; see also African human rights system 1016, 1025, 1067–8
access 866
non-governmental organization 866
admissibility 866
composition 866
establishment 865–7
jurisdiction 866
mandate 866, 1016
relationship with the African Commission 865–7
Commission submitted communications 867
matters transferred from the Commission 867
African human rights system; see also African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights; African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights; African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights
deprivation of liberty 851–3
fair trial 849, 853–4, 1016
freedom of expression 854–5
habeas corpus852
non-refoulement 855–7
principle of legality 843, 849–51
right to life 848–9
African Union 1065–7
African Peace and Security Architecture 1011
continental counter-terrorist approach post 9/11 160, 1004–11
African Centre for the Study and Research on Terrorism 868, 1007–8, 1014, 1019, 1025
compliance with international obligations 845–6, 1021
cooperation 1007
definition of terrorism 162, 847, 850
draft Comprehensive African Anti-terrorism Model Law 1008–9
effects of implementation of Algiers Convention 846–8
harmonization of continental with domestic anti-terrorism legislation 843–4, 868, 1017
human resources 1014–15
lack of state reporting 1015
operational challenges 1014–15
payment of ransoms 1010–11
political offences 162, 842, 856
state compliance with African Union counter-terrorist framework 1012–14
weak enforcement of human rights obligations 1015–16
(p. 1136)
continental counter-terrorist approach pre 9/11 995–1004
al Qaeda 998
colonialism 992–3
cooperation 843, 998–1004
definition of terrorism 842–3, 1000–1, 1004
extradite or prosecute 844–5, 857, 1001–2
lacunae 1003–4
political offences 842, 856, 995–7, 1000–4
religious radicalism 993–5, 997–8
role of non-state actors 992–3
self-determination struggles 995–7, 999, 1000
use of the term ‘terrorism’ 996
legal framework 841–2
Peace and Security Council 845–6, 857–8, 868–70, 1003, 1006, 1009–10, 1025
regional cooperation (Regional Economic Communities) 868–70, 1006–7, 1016–25
Arab Maghreb Union 1017–18
Central Africa Economic and Monetary Community 1018 fn 81, 1024
Economic Community of Central African States 1016–17
Economic Community of West African States 1016, 1018, 1020–2, 1024
Intergovernmental Authority on Development 1016, 1018–20, 1023
mutual legal assistance 1017, 1020–1, 1023
Southern African Development Community 1017–18, 1022–3
Agiza, Ahmed; see extraordinary rendition
Ahsan, Aitzaz; see Pakistan
Air France Flight 139 hijacking 996
Algeria; see also military commissions 853
Alliance of Civilizations 319
Alzery, Mohammed; see extraordinary rendition
American Convention on Human Rights; see also Inter-American human rights system 787, 817–18
defining offences 792
democratic rights
freedom of association 832
freedom of expression 828
right to privacy 835
derogation 87, 208, 211–12, 718, 801, 828
detention 807
enforced disappearances 796
fair trial 87, 712, 716, 787, 797–8
jurisdiction 642, 818
non-refoulement 125–6
obligation to safeguard human rights 803
principle of legality 791–2
formal 791
substantive 791
prohibition of torture et al 794–5, 807
right to life 625, 639, 793–4
states of emergency 718
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man; see also Inter-American human rights system 812, 817–18
democratic rights
freedom of association 832
freedom of expression 828
right to privacy 835
Amnesty International; see also non-judicial accountability mechanisms 227
Angola 410, 995–6, 1023
Arab Charter on Human Rights 87, 598
fair trial 87
Arab Maghreb Union; see African Union
Argentina; see also emergency powers (state practice)
enforced disappearances 831
assassinations; see targeted killings
Australia; see control orders
aut dedere aut judicare; see extradition; Lockerbie bombing
Basque Homeland and Freedom (ETA); see Spain
Belgium 236
Bhutto, Mohtarma Benazir; see Pakistan
bin Laden, Osama; see targeted killings
Bloody Sunday; see Northern Ireland
Brazil 831–2, 834
British Columbia Civil Liberties Association 416
Bulgaria; see immigration tribunals
Cambodia
Extraordinary Chambers 876
Canada; see also non-refoulement; immigration tribunals; judicial deference; police 241, 415–16, 525, 584
Air India Flight 182 bombing 334–7
intelligence and policing failure 334–7
Arar inquiry 379, 537, 545, 563, 566, 577
Canadian Security Intelligence Service 334–7, 415
detention policy 447–8
Federal Court 100
Royal Canadian Mounted Police 334–7
Supreme Court 32–5, 157, 241–2
Central African Economic and Monetary Community; see African Union
Central Intelligence Agency; see also accountability; detention; intelligence agencies 396
detention programme 240, 381
(p. 1137)
extraordinary rendition 381, 539–78
interrogations 339–40, 363, 516, 519, 541, 550
Chaudhry, Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad; see Pakistan
Chechnya; see Russia
classification and treatment of detainees (general) 426–56, 547, 1050
armed conflict or law enforcement 428–9
before World War II 436–9
American Civil War 437–8
Franco-Prussian War 437–8
prisoner of war status 430, 437–8
state practice post 9/11 445–8
Canada 447–8
Germany 447–8
Israel 447–8
United States of America 445–7, 454, 656–88
state practice pre 9/11 441–5
India 442
Indonesia 442
Malaysia 442
prisoners of war 442–3, 665–6
classification and treatment of detainees (international armed conflict) 448–52, 629–31
Additional Protocol I 1977 440–1, 528, 608, 629
Article 5 tribunals 448–52, 456, 660–1, 662
composition 448–51
procedural safeguards 451–2
state practice 450–2
Geneva Conventions 1949 439–40, 629, 660, 662, 696
internees 443–4, 475–6, 527–8
safeguards 475–6
prisoner of war status 439–44, 475, 608, 609, 629, 631, 660, 696
interrogation 527
retained personnel 443–4
classification and treatment of detainees (non-international armed conflict) 452–4, 528, 631–3
criminal detainees 444–5
human treatment 445, 453
security internees 444–5
status determination 453
East Timor 453
Kosovo 453
Club of Madrid 300, 311–12
International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism, and Security 311–16, 937
democratic values 313–14
follow-up 315–16
importance of human rights and the rule of law 312–13
Madrid Agenda against Terrorism 300, 302, 312–16
policy recommendations 314–15
Colombia; see also emergency powers (state practice) 691, 819–22, 830
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) 181
Commonwealth of Independent States 159–60
Community of Democracies 315
control orders 140, 166–9, 371–2
Australia 167–8, 170
ne bis in idem principle 167–8
standard of proof 166–7
United Kingdom 166–7
Belmarsh detainees 244–5, 500
cooperation (international); see also extradition; International Criminal Court 896–900, 1062–4
absence of definition of terrorism 16–19, 50, 54, 319, 581 fn 10, 1039
ad hoc tribunals 896–7
inter-agency 340–4, 353, 562–4
Interpol 348, 1035 fn 20
legal framework 896–8
mutual legal assistance 896–7
non-cooperation 896–7
judicial review 896–7
sanctions 897
cooperation (national)
inter-agency 327–40
Spain and France 305, 918
cooperation (regional); see also African Union; Eurojust 1064–8
best practices 1016–24
coordination with other bodies 968
international 985–8
regional 977–85, 1007
sub-regional 1016–24
data protection 972
exchange of information 968–72
harmonization of powers 868, 967–8, 989, 1017
protection of rights 988
Corsica Liberation Movement 759–60
Council of Europe 155–6, 159–60, 498, 501, 541
Commissioner for Human Rights 322, 352
Committee of Ministers 707, 736, 768
European Code of Police Ethics 612–13
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe 542, 566, 953–5, 962
Marty Reports 542–3, 564–5, 569, 575, 953–5
criminal justice approach (regional); military approach; police 390, 397
approaches
criminal justice 47, 56–8, 63, 66–7, 133–70
(p. 1138)
inadequacy of existing approaches 48, 52, 58, 68
military 47–8, 59, 63
preventive 371–3
contemporary discourse 256–8, 280–1
balancing of rights 256
characterization of terrorists 258
crisis response 256
use of secondary, or tertiary data 257
counter-terrorism law-making; see also African Union; Commonwealth of Independent States; Council of Europe; criminal justice approach (general); criminal justice approach (international); criminal justice approach (national); criminal justice approach (regional); European Union; League of Arab States; Organization of American States; Organization of Islamic Cooperation; South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
codification 18–19
customary international law definition of terrorism
Special Tribunal for Lebanon 16 fn 10, 877
influence of national law-making 21–2
piecemeal approach 17
soft law definition of terrorism 77–9
diverse interpretation of existing norms 19–21
‘In Larger Freedom’ 195
UN High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges, and Change 194–5
treaty definition of terrorism
UN draft Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism negotiations 16–17, 21, 142–3, 169, 186, 190–3, 319, 1042
absence of a universal definition 16–19, 54, 319, 581, 790, 874, 905–6, 914, 929–30, 1039–40, 1044–5
international humanitarian law exclusion clause 190–3, 203, 1045
lex specialis status 169
state terrorism 193
UN General Assembly 16
UN Security Council
Resolution 1373 17–18, 20, 71–3, 78, 135, 142–50, 154, 197–200, 368, 580, 846, 991
Resolution 1566 18, 71–2, 145–7, 169, 195–6
counter-terrorism policy-making; see also North Atlantic Treaty Organization; Spain; victims (security imperative responses); victims (terrorist attacks) 302–22
the role of the diplomat 318–20
achievement and maintenance of effective international cooperation 318–20
political pressures 291–2, 306–7
role of victims 307
Spain 303–11
Court of Justice of the European Union; see also European Union; European Union sanctions regime; judicial control
actions for damages 91
due process 753–7
effect of European constitutional structure 93
European Union sanctions regime 103–5, 107, 585
UN sanctions regime 70, 91, 93–102, 106–10, 293–4, 414–15, 585
fair trial 753–7
General Court 96–9, 102–106, 753
infringement actions 91
preliminary rulings 91, 105
crimes against humanity; see also International Criminal Court; International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia; International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda 480, 559
as terrorist crimes 889–95
establishing individual criminal responsibility 894
evidentiary requirements 890–3
criminal justice approach (general); criminal justice approach (international); criminal justice approach (national); criminal justice approach (regional); see also counter-terrorism law-making; European Union sanctions regime; extradition; international criminal law; international human rights law; judicial control; terrorist financing; UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy; UN sanctions regime 387, 1051–3
benefits 137–40, 991
accountability 991
deterrence 138, 991
moral supremacy 991
punishment 137–8
rehabilitation 138
stigmatize terrorist offenders 138–9, 991
changes post 9/11 135–6, 139, 163, 1004–5
criminalization of ‘terrorism’ 135, 139, 321
handling large quantities of evidence 900–5
handling sensitive materials 898–900
harmonization of anti-terrorism instruments 18–19
history of 134
inchoate, ancillary, or preparatory offences 134, 138, 168, 170
non-criminal responses 80, 166–8
overly punitive sentences 139, 150
purpose 134–5
criminal justice approach (international); see also impunity (non-state actors) 141–58, 521
ambiguously defined offences 790
criminalizing terrorist offences 142, 168
definition of terrorism 16–19, 21, 54, 136–7, 158, 319, 524
(p. 1139)
due process 168, 170
elements 1032
adequate criminal procedures 1032
independent and impartial judiciary 1032
institutional infrastructure 1032
implementation 1033
inchoate, ancillary, or preparatory offences 147–50, 168, 170
extended liability 149, 168
membership of terrorist organizations 150–3, 170
obligation to criminalize ‘terrorism’ 144–7
sectoral terrorism treaties 66–8, 80, 141–3, 186–90, 1030–1, 1039
aut dedere aut judicare 67, 186
bases of jurisdiction 186
political offence exception 78, 187
regulatory gaps 142
scope of application 187–90
speech related terrorist offences 155–8
apologie 156
criminal justice approach (national) 521
inchoate, ancillary, or preparatory offences 148–9
speech related terrorist offences 156–7
public provocation 156–7
criminal justice approach (regional) 158–63
definition of terrorism 158–63
political offence exception 159, 162
speech related terrorist offences 155–6
apologie 155–6
public provocation 155–6
detention; see also African human rights system; enforced disappearances; European human rights system; extraordinary rendition; Inter-American human rights system; non-discrimination; prohibition against torture et al; treatment in detention; UN human rights system; United Kingdom; United States of America 457–82, 484, 524, 1053–5
administrative internment 60, 140, 166, 169, 371, 472–7, 482, 496–7,
definition 458
foreign nationals 496, 497
international human rights law 459–63, 472–5, 702, 776–7
international humanitarian law 459–63, 475–7
arbitrary detention 70
deprivation of liberty 465, 471–2, 490–1
detention without charge 371
Belmarsh detainees 27–9, 234, 244, 473, 500, 617, 776–7
indefinite detention 234, 482, 717
international human rights law 465–7, 469–71
pre-charge 465–7
remand detention 469–71
international humanitarian law 467–9, 471
pre-trial 467–9
remand detention 471
non-discrimination 605–7
preventive 141, 166, 457, 605–7, 617, 688
procuratorates 469–70
secret detention 85, 352, 477–80, 182, 513, 542
international criminal law 479–80
international human rights law 477–9
international humanitarian law 479–80
separation of detention and investigation powers 385, 491, 501
discrimination; see non-discrimination, right of
East West Institute
4th Annual Worldwide Security Conference 316
Economic Community of Central African States; see African Union
Economic Community of West African States; see African Union
El Salvador 823 fn 44, 831–2
emergency powers (state practice); see also African human rights system; European human rights system; Inter-American human rights system; International Commission of Jurists; jus cogens; UN human rights system 205–231, 406, 700–2, 722, 1047–8, 1070–1
declaration of state of exception 206
derogable rights 207–9
non-judicial safeguards 942–3
discretion of states 209–13
legal framework 207–15
non-derogable rights 210–13
proportionality 230–1
remedies 215
theoretical approaches 228–9
large controller theory 229, 231
negative controller theory 228–9
partial controller theory 228–31
United States v Carolene test 242
emergency powers (state practice); see also emergency powers
Argentina 219
Colombia 219, 691
Germany 223, 262
(p. 1140)
India 223, 246
Israel 260
Malaysia 223–4
Morocco 225
Nepal 223–4
Pakistan 245, 249–51
Peru 215, 220–3
Singapore 223
South Africa 225, 260
Thailand 223
Uganda 225
United Kingdom 246, 260
United States of America 219–20, 246
Uruguay 219
enforced disappearances; see also detention; extraordinary rendition 477–8, 552–3, 794
definition 478–9, 552–3
legal consequences 479
erga omnes obligations; see jus cogens
ETA (Basque Homeland and Freedom); see Spain
Eurojust; see also cooperation (regional) 965–89, 1065
cooperation with international organizations 968, 985–8
cooperation with third states 968, 985–8
cooperation within European Union 977–85
Council of the European Union 982–4
European Commission 982–4
European Parliament 982–4
European Union Counter-Terrorism Coordinator 981, 984–5
General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union 982
President of the European Union 982
Standing Committee of Operational Cooperation on Internal Security 983
creation 966
data protection 972
security clearance 972
third countries 972
European Arrest Warrant 161, 747–8, 967, 970, 972–4
political offence exception 582
protection of rights 974
refusal or postponement 973
role of Eurojust 973–4
Europol 961–2, 977–81
Analysis Work Files 977–8, 981
Joint Investigation Teams 978–80, 982
relationship with Eurojust 977–81
role 977
Terrorism Situation and Trend Report 970, 980
terrorist profiles 610
exchange of information 968–72
judicial authorities investigating same groups 971–2
national correspondents of terrorism 968–71
operational and strategic information 970
freezing and confiscating assets 975–6
investigative measures 974–5
judicial cooperation 965–6
national coordination systems 971
protection of rights 974–6
role in investigations and prosecutions against terrorism 966–8
composition 967
objectives 966
tasks 967
Terrorism Convictions Monitor 970
European Arrest Warrant; see Eurojust
European Commission; see Eurojust; parliamentary oversight
European Commission against Racism and Intolerance; see also non-discrimination, right of profiling 613, 615
European Committee for the Prevention of Torture et al; see also European human rights system; non-judicial accountability mechanism; prohibition against torture et al; treatment in detention 483–514, 1079–80
preventive approach 484, 503
European Convention on Human Rights; see also European human rights system; jurisdiction; military courts 760–2
access to courts 708–9
characteristics of Convention system 762–3
exhaustion of domestic remedies 762–3
derogable rights 86, 208, 472, 706, 709–10
detention 472, 505
due process 640
effective remedy 727, 740–53, 777–83
emergency powers 208, 706, 709–10
extraterritoriality51, 642–5
fair trial 87, 703, 710, 754, 777–83
impartiality and independence 703, 706
judicial review 85, 708, 709
liberty and security 70, 740, 772–7
non-derogable rights 211–12, 243, 709–10
non-refoulement 128, 580, 766–7, 771–2
obligation to respect human rights 763–4
privacy 748–53
prohibition against torture et al 243, 484, 580, 727, 741–8, 767, 769–72
right to life 243, 625, 639, 765–9
death penalty 765–6
interim measures 767–8
European Court of Human Rights; see also European human rights system; jurisdiction; military courts 759–84
access to courts 708–9
admissibility 762–3
derogable rights 86, 88, 472, 709–10, 762
detention 234, 372, 472–3, 503, 505, 759, 761, 766, 773–4, 776–7 (p. 1141)
court review 465–7, 775–6
due process 585
effective remedy 380, 729, 742–6, 749–53, 777–83
emergency powers 27, 27 fn 58, 88, 209, 466–7, 709–10, 711
discretion of states 209–10
erga omnes effect of the Court’s judgments 763
extraordinary rendition 539n, 573–4
extraterritoriality 37–40, 43, 549, 643, 764, 766
fair trial 87–8, 466, 608, 703–11, 722, 761, 777–83
evidentiary disclosure 165, 585, 708, 741–2, 751, 753, 761, 776, 778–9
extradition 727–30, 736, 738–40, 781–3
impartiality and independence 703–7
prohibition of evidence gained through torture et al 779–81
habeas corpus 710–11, 775
jurisdiction 761, 764, 766
non-derogable rights 128, 709–10
non-discrimination 473, 600, 608
justified and unjustified distinctions 601–2
non-refoulement 127–31, 581, 724, 736, 761, 766–7
diplomatic assurances 588–9, 742, 768, 771–2
obligation to respect human rights 557, 763–4
privacy 526, 741, 749–53, 761
prohibition against torture et al 32, 128, 550, 742–6, 761, 766–7, 769–72
detention conditions 503, 771
interrogation techniques 495, 520–1, 770
‘ticking bomb’ bomb situation 769–70
right to life 641, 765–9
death penalty 765–7
interim measures 767–8
obligation to investigate 768–9
use of lethal force 641, 765
review of UN sanctions 101–2, 414, 761
European Policy Centre
The Madrid Agenda at the European Level: Confronting Terrorism through Democratic Means 315
European Union
Common Foreign and Security Policy 88
jurisdiction of European Union Courts over actions 90–1
Counter-Terrorism Strategy 23, 958–60
first pillar 88, 959
judicial review 91–3
Justice and Home Affairs Council 966
Lisbon Treaty 960–2
Network of Independent Experts in Fundamental Rights
profiling 613, 615
Parliamentary Committee 237–8
relationship between UN and European Union legal orders 96, 107–8
second pillar 88
third pillar 92, 104–105, 959–60
European Union sanctions regime; see also judicial control; proscribed terrorist organizations; terrorist financing; UN sanctions regime 307–8, 585, 975–6
judicial review of 88–105, 107
legal basis 89–90
procedure 89–90, 585
Europol; see Eurojust
extradition; see also cooperation (international); Lockerbie bombing
aut dedere aut judicare 57, 67–8, 192, 371, 554, 1032, 1042
dual criminality 1040, 1042
lack of effective coordination 68, 1040
political offence exception 78, 148, 159, 169, 582
extrajudicial killings; see targeted killings
extraordinary renditions; see also detention; enforced disappearances; prohibition against torture et al 352, 530–1, 537, 539–78, 742, 1056
Agiza, Ahmed 593
Alzery, Mohammed 593
Arar, Maher 537, 545, 563, 566, 577
Central Intelligence Agency 539–78, 593, 947–9
‘black sites’ 531, 541
challenges to litigation 564–76
clandestine nature of extraordinary rendition 575
difficulties in gathering evidence 575
‘gagging’ orders 576
immunities from civil suits for torture 570, 577
limited investigations 564–7
limited, low level prosecutions 567–9
state secrets 571–3, 577
definition 539
diplomatic assurances 592–3, 948
individual responsibility 559–60
arrest and detention 560
legal framework 545–56
consular protections 545
international humanitarian law 546–8
international human rights law 548–56
(p. 1142)
non-intervention 545
Mohamed, Binyam 243, 563, 571–2, 577
non-refoulement 550–1, 561
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe 542, 566
Marty Reports 542–3, 564–5, 569, 575, 953
Priest, Dana 247
rendition flights and jurisdiction 561–2
duty of enquiry 562
rights of victims 553–5, 577
state responsibility 556–9, 577–8
arrest and detention 560–1
intelligence cooperation 562–4
Italy 560, 567, 568–9
Lithuania 561, 566
Poland 561, 565–6
Romania 561, 564–5
staging, stopover, and logistical support 561–2
Sweden 593
Federal Bureau of Investigation; see also intelligence agencies 240, 338–40
France 526
parliamentary oversight 944, 946
freedom of religion; see international human rights law
Fujimori, Alberto; see emergency powers (state practice)
Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces; see also parliamentary oversight 938
genocide; see also International Criminal Court
terrorist acts as genocide 895
German Council on Foreign Relations
Fighting Terrorism, Upholding Human Rights 316
Germany; see also emergency powers (state practice); radicalization 259–78, 525, 567
detention policy 447–8
the Enabling Act 247
German Constitutional Court 110, 223, 949
parliamentary oversight 944–6, 949–50
Red Army Faction 263, 274, 276, 278, 441, 759
Global Relief Foundation 240
Goldsmith, Jack; see United States of America
Goldstone, Justice Richard; see United States of America
Gonzales, Alberto; see United States of America
Greece; see also police 488
Guantánamo Bay; see also, accountability; detention; military commissions; non-refoulement; security imperatives; United States of America 458, 472, 474, 520, 561, 570, 656–88, 816, 825
application of United States law to 42–3, 242, 454, 477, 661–2
habeas corpus 42–3, 477, 664–9, 670, 673, 675–7, 680, 682–5
closure of facilities 61, 406, 434, 520, 680–2
detainee status 49, 517, 662–3
‘enhanced interrogation techniques’ 220, 246, 339–40, 454, 518, 536, 541, 550
release of foreign nationals 319
Uighur detainees 118
Steyn, Lord 43, 461, 482
Guatemala 830
Haiti 410
immigration (national practice); see also Special Immigration Appeal Commission
expulsion of terrorist suspects
effectiveness 737–8
fair trial 738–40
impunity (governmental) 234, 332, 484–6, 804
executive 245–7
judiciary 242–5
identification of non-derogable rights 243
scrutiny of executive actions 242–5
legislature 239–42
defining powers and limits of the executive and its law enforcement agencies 239–40
legislative oversight 240–1, 332
protection of whistleblowers 831–2
restricted materials 49–50
security forces 246, 260–3, 795, 832
impunity (institutional) see also European Union sanctions regime; UN sanctions regime 234
UN Sanctions Committee 234, 235–9
intelligence agencies; see also Central Intelligence Agency; cooperation (international); cooperation (national); cooperation (regional); judicial control; police 288, 1061–2
accountability 352, 354, 367–8, 373–84, 576
challenges 373–4, 376–8, 380–4
criminal responsibility 359, 370
independence 376
legal framework 379–80
mechanisms 374–5, 378, 386
remedies 380–4
adherence to the rule of law 330–3
in practice 331–3
operational effectiveness 330–1
cooperation 289, 353, 376–9, 386,
disclosure of evidence 381, 386–7
human rights 330–1, 356–9, 368–70, 374, 376
fair trial 363–4, 372
prohibition against torture et al 288, 331–2, 362–3, 368–70
right to privacy 288, 365
information sharing 354
between government agencies 368–70, 404
foreign intelligence gathering 367–8, 377–8
human intelligence 331, 360–1, 404
intelligence gathering techniques 314, 328, 359–68, 404
surveillance and signals intelligence 365–8, 405
law enforcement
arrest, detention, and interrogation powers 354, 362–5, 385
mistrust of 330–1
non-criminal measures derived from intelligence 371
operational independence 333–4
overreach 359
preventive approach 371–3
relationship with the police 327–40
role in counter-terrorism post 9/11 353–4
increased powers and competencies 353–4
intelligence as the basis of executive action 354, 370–3
state responsibility 354–5, 368–70
InterAction Council of Former Heads of State and Government 300
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights; see also Inter-American human rights system 811–37, 1080
absence of international humanitarian law mandate 720, 818–26
democratic rights 837
freedom of association 837
freedom of expression 830–2, 837
right to privacy 835–7
derogation 818–19
emergency powers 716
extraordinary rendition 573
extraterritoriality 824–5
fair trial 711–21
individual communications 812–15
admissibility 813–14
sending cases to Inter-American Court of Human Rights 813, 815
non-discrimination 602, 836
profiling 613
non-refoulement 126–7
right to life 819–20
state reports 812–13, 815–16
state visits 812, 1079
states of emergency 217, 716, 718–21
thematic reports 712–13, 812–13
victims 812–17, 823
Inter-American Court of Human Rights; see also Inter-American human rights system 785–810
amparo 217, 227, 719–20, 802
application of international humanitarian law 721, 820–2
definition of criminal terrorist offences 790–2
democratic rights
freedom of association 832–5
freedom of expression 829–30
derogations 213, 719–20, 801
detention 717, 805–8
conditions of detention 807–8
effective remedy 217, 380
reparations 380
emergency powers 209–10, 213, 221, 789–90
enforced disappearances 794, 796–7
definition 796–7
fair trial 711–21, 797–802
appeal 717, 721, 801
evidentiary disclosure 713
impartiality and independence 711–12, 715–16, 721, 798–800
presumption of innocence 721, 799
public procedure 717, 721, 800
rights of defence 222, 721, 799–800
time for the proceedings 719–21, 800–1
habeas corpus 217, 227, 717–120, 801–2, 806
jurisdiction 786–7, 803
legal framework? 787–9
non-discrimination 598
non-refoulement 126–7, 131
obligation to investigate 793
principle of legality 790–1
prohibition of torture et al 222, 717, 719, 794–6, 808
(p. 1144)
receiving cases from the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights 813, 815
remedies 794, 808–9
right to life 719, 808
targeted killings 213, 793–4
self-amnesty 803–5
states of emergency 217–18, 221, 718–21
Inter-Parliamentary Union; see also parliamentary oversight 938, 957–8
Intergovernmental Authority on Development; see African Union
internet 975, 981, 983, 1041
voice over internet protocol (VOIP) 975, 984
International Civil Aviation Organization 68, 1035
International Civil Liberties Monitoring Group 235, 416
International Commission of Jurists 120, 298
Assessing Damage: Urging Action Report 2009 25, 44, 206, 252, 287, 356, 358–9, 937, 959
emergency powers 223–4, 251
normalization of exceptional measures 25, 44, 285, 321, 351, 372–3, 1060–1
International Committee of the Red Cross 179, 184, 199–200, 240, 443, 477–8, 497, 523, 544, 631–3, 635–8
International Court of Justice; see also Lockerbie bombing 163, 463, 558, 620–2
extraterritoriality of international human rights law 357, 643
relationship between international human rights and humanitarian law 462, 604, 819
reviewing actions of UN organs 55, 239, 253
International Criminal Court; see also cooperation (international); impunity (governmental) 252
best practices
case matrix 901–5, 907
evidential 898–900, 907
complementarity 875
crimes against humanity 480, 559, 889–95
fair trial 899, 903–4, 907
genocide 895
inchoate, ancillary, or preparatory offences 147
international cooperation 896–900
non-cooperation 897–8
jurisdiction 253, 879
Rome Statute 80, 137, 183, 480, 560, 896, 928
superior orders 875
terrorism related offences 253, 878–80, 889, 889 fn 80, 930
war crimes 180
international criminal law see also accountability; criminal justice approach (general); criminal justice approach (international); criminal justice approach (national); criminal justice approach (regional); UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy 874–6
application to state and non-state actors 875, 906
constitutional immunity 875
criminal responsibility for terrorist acts 874, 882–3, 906–7
jurisdiction 876–80
objectives 137
prohibition of coerced confessions 522, 524, 531–8
statute of limitations 875
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda 293, 410, 535
crimes against humanity 889
terrorism offences 876
war crimes 876
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia 137, 183, 293, 410, 535, 896
Appeals Chamber 881–3, 887–9
crimes against humanity 894
jurisdiction 885–7
terrorism offences 878, 885–7
war crimes 174–5, 880–3, 885–9
international human rights law; see also African human rights system; detention; emergency powers; emergency powers (state practice); European human rights system, Inter-American human rights system; judicial control; jurisdiction; jus cogens; non-discrimination, right of; prohibition against torture et al; victims (legal framework); UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy; UN human rights system 1053–8
applicability in times of armed conflict 86, 356, 459–63, 546, 604
extraterritoriality 24, 35–44, 356–7, 531, 548–9, 639, 642–9
fair trial 86–8, 164–6, 170, 206, 233, 346, 363–4, 372, 464, 466, 470, 509, 549, 722
equality before the courts 607–10
evidentiary disclosure 164–5, 242, 332
habeas corpus 227, 722–3, 1071
nullum crimen sine lege 699, 843, 850, 1030
right to a public hearing 699
freedom of expression 157–8
judicial guarantees 217
(p. 1145)
liberty and security of the person 346, 463, 465–6, 470, 478, 549–50, 606, 701–2
privacy 288, 365
procedural guarantees applicable to transfers 551–2
prohibition on retrospective criminal punishment 144
ambiguously defined terrorist offenses 144–5, 241
relationship with international humanitarian law 356, 459–63, 604, 819
right to life 624–49
death penalty 649
defence of persons against unlawful violence 640
exceptions 639–42, 849
right to remedy 540, 553–4
state terrorism 65
international humanitarian law; see also classification and treatment of detainees (general); classification and treatment of detainees (international armed conflict); classification and treatment of detainees (non-international armed conflict); International Criminal Court; military approach; UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy; war crimes 356, 459, 626–39
applicability to counter-terrorist responses 142, 356, 460, 521, 526–30, 546, 695, 818–26, 885–7, 906, 1049–50
blurring of lines between armed conflict and terrorism 196–201, 432–4
political reasons 196–8
practical reasons 198–201, 310
civilian objects 176–7
customary international humanitarian law 469, 528 fn 71, 604, 608
prisoner of war status 443
determining the status of a conflict 429–32
direct participation in hostilities 179, 633–6, 887–9
direct causal link 634–6
nexus to the belligerency 636
threshold of the harm 634
equality before the courts 608
equality of rights and obligations 172
international armed conflict 173, 175–80, 432, 460, 626
combatant immunity 177, 631
definition 626
lawful combatants 177–8, 629–31
occupation 178, 189–90, 193
principle of distinction 175–6, 188, 433, 626, 629, 631, 634, 887
principle of proportionality 176
terrorists as combatants 630–1
judicial control 85
non-discrimination 604, 608
non-international armed conflict 173, 180–5, 460, 462, 626, 631–3
absence of combatant status 183–4, 631–2
amnesty 184
definition 181, 626–7
humane treatment 445, 453, 528
involvement of organized armed groups 182, 627–8, 632–3
threshold criteria 182–3, 627–8, 885–7
prohibited acts (general) 172
relationship with international human rights law 356, 459–63, 604, 819
self-determination struggles 178–9, 193, 435, 440
state terrorism 65
UN draft Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism 186, 189
international humanitarian law exclusion clause 169, 190–3, 203
self-determination 193
International Law Commission 64, 65, 557, 878–9
International Maritime Organization 1035
international refugee law; see also immigration (national practice); immigration tribunals; non-refoulement; UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy 1058–9
diplomatic assurances 319, 544, 551, 587–93, 595
legal framework 113–14
right to asylum 114–15, 128, 555, 581
exclusion clause 114, 581–7, 594–5
expulsion on national security grounds 586
substitute for criminal justice approach 112
Iraq; see also accountability; military approach; United Kingdom; United States of America 401
Abu Ghraib 246, 397, 406, 518, 536
Butler Report 330
counter-insurgency 390, 397
Fallujah 394
Mousa, Baha 40–2
Petraeus, General 393
2003 invasion 63, 74, 76, 233, 308, 390, 397
use of counter-terrorism strategy 397
Irish Republican Army (IRA); see Northern Ireland; radicalization
Israel 259, 649, 659
conflict with Hezbollah, 2006 60, 73, 76, 181, 392–3, 886
detention policy 447–8
response to terrorism 60–1, 429
UN condemnation 57
Supreme Court of Israel 259, 520, 635, 638, 648, 651, 886
Turkel Commission 262
use of torture et al 520, 535
Landau Commission 520, 535
(p. 1146) Italy; see also extraordinary rendition; immigration tribunals; victims (legal framework); victims (terrorist attacks) 502
Bologna train station bombing 908
Bologna Victims’ Association 909
‘Italicus’ train attack 914
Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari 908
Omar, Abu 537, 561, 567, 568–9
Piazza della Loggia attack 914
Piazza Fontana attack 914
‘Rapido 904’ train attack 915
Union of Families of Terrorism Victims 909
use of secret evidence 741, 746–8
Ustica’ plane attack 915
jihad 20
Jordan 591, 741–2
judicial deference; see security imperatives
judicial robustness; see security imperatives
jurisdiction; see also international criminal law; international human rights law
extraterritorial jurisdiction for terrorism offences 146, 148
extraterritorial reach (‘effective control’ test) 36–44, 51, 482, 485, 548–9, 622, 639
European Court of Human Rights 37–40, 43, 549
UN Human Rights Committee 36–7, 43, 461, 549
United Kingdom 40–2, 43
United States of America 42–3, 461
universal jurisdiction 253, 844
jus ad bellum; see also Afghanistan; Iraq; military approach; UN Charter; UN Security Council; war on terror 62, 1062–3
extraterritorial law enforcement 623–4
self-defence 64, 74–7, 406, 429, 619–24, 640, 645–9
anticipatory 76, 620
‘armed attack’ 620–2, 623
attacks by non-state actors 79, 620–1, 623–4
Caroline doctrine 640 fn 77
continuing threats 621, 647
in response to 9/11 73–5, 460
necessity 622, 624, 645–9
pre-emptive 76, 620
proportionality 76, 623–4
jus cogens
definition 121
erga omnes obligations 132, 461
non-derogable norms 797
non-discrimination 598
non-refoulement 118–32
prohibition against torture et al 32, 118–19, 122, 484–5, 523
prohibition of the use of force 76
jus in bello; see international humanitarian law
justiciability; see non-justiciability
Karzai, Hamid; see Afghanistan
Kurdistan Worker’s Party (PKK); see proscribed terrorist organizations
League of Arab States; see also Arab Charter on Human Rights 997
legal advisers (general) 284–7, 298–9, 1048
decision-making process 299
early intervention 299
fully informed 299
policy-making process 298
legal advisers (governmental) 287–92
administrative process 286, 288–90
legal technical assistance 289–90
oversight of government agencies 289
as governmental representative in international negotiations 286, 290
formulation of instructions 290
internal coordination 288
national legislative process 266–8
monitoring of legislation 287–8
policy-making 286, 291–2
analysis of existing norms 291
analysis of legal rules and principles 291
early involvement 292
relationship between legal adviser and policy-maker 291–2
legal advisers (international organizations) 292–8
administrative process 286, 295
establishment of international norms 286, 292–4
negotiation of international treaties 286, 295–6
objectivity and impartiality 295
policy-making 286, 296–8
determining identity of policy-makers 296
relationship between legal adviser and policy-maker 297
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE); see proscribed terrorist organizations
Lockerbie bombing 996–7
extradition
aut dedere aud judicare 58, 67–8
(p. 1147)
Libya 996–7
UN Security Council response 67
Lord’s Resistance Army; see Uganda
Madrid bombing, 2004; see Spain; Club of Madrid
Magna Carta 233
Manningham-Buller, Dame Eliza; see police
media; see also non-judicial accountability mechanisms
use of media by terrorist groups 395–6
military approach; see also Afghanistan; criminal justice approach (general); international humanitarian law; Iraq; jus ad bellum; UN Security Council; war on terror 388–408, 1061
conflict 396–8
confusion between counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism 388–9, 390
merging of counter-insurgency and counter-terrorist tactics 403
counter-insurgency 388–90, 397–8
holistic approach 402–7
overemphasized military role 402–3
role of non-military means 389, 403–5
failures 392–3
information operations 394–6, 405–6
‘lawfare’ 406–7
stability operations 398–9
use of pre-emptive force 76, 402
military commissions; see also Guantánamo Bay; military courts 434, 458, 656–88, 1072–4
Combatant Status Review Tribunals 474, 672
compliance with international humanitarian law 609
fair trial 458, 678, 683, 686–7
hearsay evidence 678, 682, 687
use of evidence obtained through torture 673–4, 678, 684–5, 687–8
interrogation techniques 529–30
admissibility of coerced confessions 529, 534, 673, 679, 684–5
prohibition against torture 673, 687–8
non-discrimination 608–9, 677–8
role of military defence counsel 669–70
United States of America 432, 445–6, 516, 609, 689, 695
Guantánamo Bay 61, 165, 167, 458, 656, 661, 1073
habeas corpus 664–9, 670, 673, 675–7, 680, 682–5
Military Commissions Act 2006 165, 529–30, 663, 676–85
Military Commissions order no. 1 (21 March 2002) 667, 670–2
Military Commissions order no. 1 (31 August 2005) 672–5
under President Obama 434, 682–5
Uniform Code of Military Justice 434, 445, 669, 671, 687
Walker Lindh, John 663–4
World War II 665–6, 669, 678
military courts (European human rights system) 608, 703–11
appeal 708–9
fair trial 703–11
independence and impartiality 703–5
jurisdiction 706
non-discrimination 609
right of access to the courts 708–9
military courts (general); see also international human rights law; jus cogens 609, 689–723, 1072–4
Algeria 692
Colombia 691
Egypt 695, 854
Sudan 853–4
Tajikistan 692
Turkey 689, 703
Uruguay 692
military courts (Inter-American human rights system) 711–21, 802
appeal 717, 801
fair trial 222–3, 711–21
independence and impartiality 712–13, 715–16, 799–800
retrospective punishment 222
right to a public hearing 717, 721, 800
use of evidence obtained through torture 721
interrogation techniques
admissibility of coerced confessions 721
jurisdiction 713–15, 717, 792, 802
right of access to the courts 713
military courts (UN human rights system) 690–703
appeal 699
fair trial 691–2, 697–703
independence and impartiality 693, 698
retrospective punishment 699
right to a public hearing 694, 699
use of evidence obtained through torture 700
interrogation techniques 700
admissibility of coerced confessions 700
prohibition against torture 700
jurisdiction 691, 693
non-discrimination 609
right of access to the courts 699
Mohamed, Binyam; see extraordinary rendition
Moldova; see also treatment in detention 491
Mousa, Baha; see Iraq
Mozambique 845
(p. 1148) Musharraf, General; see Pakistan
nation-building 390–1, 397–8, 400–1
governmental structures 401
legal structures 400
Nepal; see also emergency powers (state practice)
peace process 197
2005 coup d’état 223–4
reaction of the International Commission of Jurists 223–4
New America Foundation
National Policy Forum on Terrorism, Security and America’s Purpose 315
Nigeria; see non-refoulement
non-discrimination, right of; see also African human rights system; European human rights system; Inter-American human rights system; international human rights law, UN human rights system; United Kingdom 314, 596–617, 1057–8
Belmarsh detainees 29, 346, 473, 500, 607, 777
equality 597
legal framework 597–605
autonomous norms 599
direct 600
during armed conflict 604–5
indirect 600
justified and unjustified distinctions 601–3
prohibited grounds for distinction 599–600
scope 598–9
sources 597–8
states of emergency 603
subordinate norms 599
preventive detention of foreign terrorist suspects 605–7, 617
racial profiling 140, 314
Russia 612
terrorist profiling 140, 610–16
definition 610
descriptive 614
predictive 614
Rasterfahndung 611
shortcomings 614
stop and search 611–12
training 616
trial by special tribunal of foreign nationals 607–10
equality before the courts 607
non-justiciability; see impunity (governmental) 28–9, 33
non-refoulement; see also European human rights system; Inter-American human rights system; international refugee law; jus cogens; UN Committee Against Torture; UN Human Rights Committee 500, 579–595, 736, 1058–9, 1071–2
Belmarsh detainees 27–9, 244–5, 500
Canadian Supreme Court 32–5
customary international law 115–32
definition 113–21
exceptions 114, 581–7, 594–5
diplomatic assurances 319, 550–1, 587–93, 595, 1059
compliance monitoring challenges 590
increasing risk to individual 588
preconditions 590–2
Guantánamo Bay
Uighur detainees 118
Nigeria 857
non-derogability 118–32, 581, 587
treaty articulation 113–21, 581–7
normative development
bottom-up 255, 258
top-down 255, 257–8, 327
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; see also Afghanistan
Afghanistan 76, 431
complicity in extraordinary renditions 542–3
partnership with Russia 318
response to terrorism 317–18, 405, 460
Secretary-General 317
strategic concept 316–18
Lisbon Summit 317
Strategic Concept, 1999 318
Northern Ireland; see also radicalization 259–78, 434–6, 659, 885
Bloody Sunday 261–2, 270–1, 273–4, 276–8
Saville Commission 262
Widgery Commission 262
Diplock courts 277
‘five techniques’ 277, 436, 520–1, 770
hunger strikes 271, 274, 278
impunity of security forces 246
internment 257–8, 436, 473, 725, 759, 773–4
Irish Republican Army 196, 263–4, 273–8, 435, 466, 641, 659, 759, 765, 774
peace process 278
Prevention of Terrorism Bill 345
security legislation and regulations 260
Sentences Review Commission 494
Sinn Féin 264
Special Powers Act 262
Norway
parliamentary oversight 944, 946
Lund Commission 378
(p. 1149) Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari; see Italy
Occupied Palestinian Territories; see also radicalization 259–78
first intifada 266, 270–1
impunity of security forces 259–63
Palestinian Liberation Organization 196, 440
second Intifada 271
security legislation and regulations 260
Omar, Abu; see Italy
Ombudsperson; see also impunity (institutional); judicial control; non-judicial accountability mechanisms; UN sanctions regime; UN Security Council 102, 238–9, 253, 294, 409–23, 1080–3
due process 418–23
effectiveness 422–3
procedures 419–22
comprehensive report 422
dialogue with petitioner 421–2
information gathering 419–21
Organization of African Unity; see African Union
Organization of American States; see also Inter-American human rights system
counter-terrorism legal framework 158–9, 216–18, 788–9
democratic rights 826–8
human rights and terrorism 788–9
institutional legal framework 811–2
Organization of Islamic Cooperation 161
self-determination struggles 162, 193
UN draft Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism 21, 191–3
Organization of the Islamic Conference; see Organization of Islamic Cooperation
Pakistan; see also emergency powers (state practice) 651–2
Ahsan, Aitzaz 250
Bhutto, Mohtarma Benazir 251
Musharraf, General 248–51
2007 judicial crisis 234, 247–51
Chaudhry, Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad 248
Supreme Court of Pakistan 248–50
parliamentary oversight; see also impunity (governmental); impunity (institutional); intelligence agencies; non-judicial accountability mechanisms 936–64, 1077–8
access to classified information 946–7, 963
approving operations 946
sanctions for unauthorized disclosure 947
benefits 939
democratic legitimacy 939, 962
enhancing critical debate 939
cooperation between national parliaments 951–2, 963–4
cooperation between regional organizations and third states 955–8, 963–4
European Union 956–8
coordinating oversight 940–2
international cooperation 941, 950–58, 963–4
numerous domestic actors 940–1
private agencies 941–2
Council of Europe
Parliamentary Assembly 952
extraordinary rendition 952–5
Marty Reports 952
democratic governance 940
European Union
European Commission 957, 961
European Parliament 952–3
European Union Counter-terrorism Strategy 956, 958–60
extraordinary rendition 953–5
Treaty of Lisbon 952, 960–2
extraordinary rendition 947–50
reaction of European states 950
forms of oversight bodies 942–7
accuracy and validity of inquiries 950
ad hoc bodies 945, 963
inquiries 945
normal parliamentary practice 942–3
permanent oversight bodies 943–5, 963
Germany
extraordinary renditions 949–50
intelligence services 373–9
intelligence cooperation 289, 353, 373, 376–9, 963–4
methods 943–5
military intelligence agencies 376
legal framework 937–9
diversity of approaches 938
security sector reform model 957–8
third party states 955–8
United States Congress 947–9
Central Intelligence Agency extraordinary rendition program 947–9
Peru; see also emergency powers (state practice); military courts 827–8, 834
decree laws 222
Revolutionary Movement Tupac Amaru (MRTA) 222, 712, 827
Shining Path 123, 808, 827, 886
targeted killings 794
Petraeus, General; see Iraq
police; see also accountability; intelligence agencies; non-discrimination, right of 323–50
accountability 333–4
adherence to the rule of law 330–3
in practice 331–3
operational effectiveness 330–1
development of counter-terrorism role 324–5
draft counter-terrorism code of practice for law enforcement officers 348–9
Greece 341–4 (p. 1150)
Revolutionary Organization November 17 341–4
mistrust of 330–1
operational independence 333–4
regulating counter-terrorism tools 344–8
additional powers 344
legislation 345–8
relationship with intelligence agencies 325, 327–40
development of a collaborative model 327–30
interdependence 333
sources of tension 332–3
Saunders, Stephen (murder of) 341–4
political offence exception; see extradition
prohibition against torture et al; see also African human rights system; European Committee for the Prevention of Torture et al; European human rights system; extraordinary renditions; Inter-American human rights system; international human rights system; Iraq; treatment in detention; UN human rights system; UN Subcommittee on the Prevention of Torture et al 288, 314, 331–2, 362–3, 463, 471, 486, 522–3, 550, 578, 1055–6
armed conflict 476, 546
definition of torture 523
cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment 122, 495
evidence gained from torture et al 29, 51, 369–70, 531–2
admissibility 519, 529–30, 534–6, 673, 684–5, 687–8
legitimacy 536–7
reliability 339, 532–4
foreign torture evidence 29–32, 369–70, 386, 563–4
encouraging, condoning, or authorizing 30, 563
ill treatment 484, 491, 494–5
initial detention 465, 486–98
conditions of detention 497–8
duration of initial detention 489–91
interview and interrogation 492–6
nature of place of detention 487–9
registration 491–2
risk of ill treatment 491
legal safeguards 503–12
appearance before a judge 509–10, 513
application of rights to all detained persons 503–4
combating impunity 510–12
information on rights for detainees 509
‘trinity’ of rights 505–9
longer term issues 498–503
indefinite detention 500
return from remand to police detention 501
solitary confinement 502–3
modification of definition by United States of America 246, 517
monitoring detention facilities 489, 511, 513–14
national preventive mechanisms 511–12
obligation to investigate 382, 386, 511, 554–5
threshold between torture and ill-treatment 122, 523
‘ticking bomb’ situations 256–7
‘torture warrants’ 257, 532
waterboarding 61, 495, 516
proscribed terrorist organizations 371
al Qaeda 307–9, 310, 324–5, 391–2, 395
bin Laden, Osama 404, 411, 651–3
Hamas 20, 155
Hezbollah 20, 395
Islamic Jihad 20, 994
Kurdistan Worker’s Party (PKK) 152, 429, 760, 885
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) 32–3, 155, 834, 985–6
Taliban 309
racial profiling; see non-discrimination, right of
radicalization; see also Germany; Occupied Palestinian Territories; Northern Ireland; South Africa
mobilization theories 265–7, 1046, 1049
as a response to repressive laws 265, 268–76
cause 265
events which appear to spark mobilization 266
radicalization theories 268–76
effect of relatively indiscriminate state repression 269–73, 276
exclusion and repression 271–2
other factors contributing to violence 271, 274–6
tipping factors for violent activism 271, 273–4
social movement theory 263–5
framing processes 263–5
political opportunity structures 263–4, 275
uptake of human and material resources 263
rechtsstaat; see rule of law
Red Army Faction; see Germany; radicalization
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC); see Colombia
Revolutionary Movement Túpac Amaru (MRTA); see Peru
Revolutionary Organization November 17; see police
(p. 1151) Rome Statute; see International Criminal Court
rule of law; see also accountability; emergency powers (general); international criminal law; international human rights law; international humanitarian law; international refugee law; security imperatives; UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy 285, 326–7, 1045–9
accountability processes 246–7
external 246–7, 376
internal 246
applicability to UN organs 55
definition 55–6, 111–12, 326, 516
framework in relation to counter-terrorism 14
inadequacy of 45
lacunae 15, 1059–61
interpretive 24–44, 1060
jurisdictional 136
normative 15–24, 1059
policy 44–50, 1060
non-judicial safeguards 214–15
principle of independence between branches of government 205, 213–14, 231, 248, 383, 937
rechtsstaat 255, 259–66, 1046
and liberal democracy 259–60
relationship between executive, judiciary, and legislature 24–6, 47, 206, 229, 234, 247, 374
judicial scrutiny of executive 28, 113, 205–6, 214, 226–9, 230, 246, 383–4
Russia; see also non-discrimination 488, 525, 612
Chechnya 393, 395
salus populus suprema lex 215
Saunders, Stephen; see police
Saville Commission Report; see Northern Ireland
Sayadi, Nabil; see UN sanctions regime
secret detention; see detention; extraordinary rendition
security imperatives; see also accountability; rule of law 285, 326–7
executive dominance 25, 47
judicial deference 24, 26–35, 164, 383
Canadian Supreme Court 32–5
United Kingdom House of Lords 27–32
judicial robustness 26–35
United Kingdom House of Lords 27–9
United States of America Supreme Court 42–3
Security and Peace Initiative 315
self-defence; see jus ad bellum
Sharpeville; see South Africa
Shining Path; see Peru
Sinn Féin; see Northern Ireland
Somalia 181, 403, 1000–1, 1019
South Africa; see also emergency powers (state practice) 259–78, 1013, 1023
African National Congress 196, 263–4
apartheid 259, 266
extradition 845, 847–8
security legislation and regulations 260
Sharpeville 262, 271, 276–7
Wessels Commission 262
South West Africa People’s Organization 441
Truth and Reconciliation Commission 262
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation 159–60
Southern African Development Community; see African Union
Spain; see also Club of Madrid 507, 913
al Qaeda 307–11
attempted coup d’état of 23 February 1981 303
Basque Homeland and Freedom (ETA) 303–7, 319, 759, 918
ceasefire 918
counter-terrorism policy-making 303–11
Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberación (GAL) 304–7, 310
causes 304–6
invasion of Iraq, 2003 308
la Guerra Sucia 304
Madrid bombing, 2004 309, 911–12
effect on domestic politics 309
political and judicial reaction 310–11
Ministry for Foreign Affairs 307, 321
Popular Party 307, 918
Socialist Party 307, 918
Special Court for Sierra Leone 876, 883–4, 894–5
Special Immigration Appeal Commission; see also European Court of Human Rights; immigration tribunals; international refugee law; non-refoulement; United Kingdom 726–42, 748, 754
expulsion of terrorist suspects 727–30, 754
Joint Committee on Human Rights 733–4,
procedure 731–3, 740
closed material 732–6, 741, 745
open material 732, 745
review of indefinite detention 733, 736–7
special advocates 585, 732–6
Special Advocates Support Office 734–5
Special Tribunal for Lebanon; see counter-terrorism law-making
state responsibility; see also accountability 64, 143, 478, 556–9
aiding, assisting, directing, controlling, or coercing 557–8, 562
breaches of jus cogens norms 558–9
(p. 1152)
‘effective control’ test 622
International Law Commission Articles on State Responsibility 2001 64–5, 557–8
obligation to investigate 382, 386, 511, 554–6, 564, 932
positive obligations to prevent and protect against serious human rights violations 556–7, 768–9
Steyn, Lord see Guantánamo Bay
Sudan; see military courts
Sweden; see also extraordinary rendition 285, 367, 593
Ministry for Foreign Affairs 287–8
Tajikistan; see military courts
targeted killings; see also European human rights system; Inter-American human rights system; international human rights law; international humanitarian law; jurisdiction; jus ad bellum; Peru; UN human rights system 60–2, 213, 305–6, 371, 396, 402, 618–53, 1056–7
applicable legal regime 625–6
armed conflict regime 626–39, 649
combatant status of terrorists 629–33, 638–9
military necessity 637, 639
right to life 626–39
status of the conflict 626–9, 638
bin Laden, Osama 60, 651–3
clandestine nature of acts 650–1
peacetime regime 639–49
extraterritoriality of human rights law 639, 642–5
imminence of threat 642, 646
necessity 645–9
right to life 624–25, 639–49
self-defence 619–24, 467
territorial integrity of states 619–24
terrorist actors; see also impunity (governmental); proscribed terrorist organizations; state responsibility; terrorist financing; victims (terrorist attacks)
non-state 66–8
state
determining state responsibility 64–6
state sponsored terrorism 64–6, 304
terrorist financing; see also Eurojust; European Union sanctions regime; proscribed terrorist organisations; UN sanctions regime 153–5, 396
customary status 153
Financial Action Taskforce 154–5
legal framework 19–21
zakat 20
terrorist profiling; see non-discrimination, right of; police
The Netherlands 584
expulsion of terrorist suspects 741, 743
parliamentary oversight 944
Turkey; see military courts
Uganda; see also emergency powers (state practice) 855, 1013
Lord’s Resistance Army 895
Uighur detainees; see Guantánamo Bay
Ukraine 487
United Kingdom; see also Afghanistan; control orders; detention; emergency powers (state practice); European Court of Human Rights; extraordinary rendition; immigration tribunals; Iraq; non-discrimination, right of; non-refoulement; Northern Ireland; Special Immigration Appeal Commissions
Afghanistan 431
Belmarsh detainees 27–9, 234, 244–5, 346, 500, 617
control orders 166–7, 234, 244–5, 372, 500, 617
derogation from human rights norms 27, 244–5, 607
detention without charge 27, 244–5, 473, 776–7
counter-terrorism policing 324–5, 327–34, 340–8
Counter Terrorism Command 324–5, 328–9
Metropolitan Police Special Branch 324, 328
National Coordinator of Terrorist Investigations 324–5, 331
New Scotland Yard 329, 341–4
stop and search 611–12
Crown Prosecution Service 333
extraordinary renditions 562–3, 571
complicity in torture et al 572–3
Mohamed, Binyam 243, 563, 577
Foreign and Commonwealth Office 342
Human Rights Act 1998
extraterritoriality 40–3, 644
indefinite detention 234, 257–8, 436, 473, 500, 725, 733, 736, 759
Iraq 431, 644
Butler Report 330
Ministry of Justice 470
non-refoulement 27, 736
diplomatic assurances 591, 731, 741
parliamentary oversight 944, 946
Intelligence Services Commission 379
(p. 1153)
Joint Committee for Human Rights 733
Select Committee on Constitutional Affairs 733
Security Services 327–34
Supreme Court 28, 101, 573, 730
arbitrary detention 70, 101, 234, 243–5, 372, 473, 500, 736
extraterritoriality of human rights law 40–3, 644
foreign torture evidence 29–32, 563–4
non-discrimination 607, 617
use of torture et al 29–32, 382, 520–1, 535, 566, 572–3, 770
United Nations (UN)
counter-terrorism approaches
Cold War 54, 56–9
post Cold War 54, 59–79
state terrorism 64–6
UN administered territories
East Timor 292–3
Kosovo 292–3
UN Charter; see also jus ad bellum 409, 619
Article 103 74
Chapter VII 619–21
Article 51 77, 620
embodying basic principles of international law 16 fn 6
use of force 73–7
UN Commission of Inquiry on Lebanon; see also Special Tribunal for Lebanon 886
UN Commission on Human Rights; see UN Human Rights Council
UN Committee Against Torture
evidence gained by torture 29
jurisdiction 122
military courts 693
non-refoulement 34, 121–4, 131, 552, 581, 857
diplomatic assurances 588–9, 593
General Comment No. 1 (Implementation of Article 3) 122
General Comment No. 2 (Implementation of Article 2) 122–3
individual communications 123–4, 593
UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination; see also non-discrimination, right of; police
equality before the courts 607–8
profiling 613–5
UN Counter-Terrorism Committee; see also UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy; UN Security Council 71–2, 78, 81, 145, 148, 296, 1019, 1027–8
Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate 71–2, 78, 81, 145, 296, 1019, 1028
incorporating human rights considerations 144, 314
UN Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate; see UN Counter-Terrorism Committee
UN Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force; see also UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy; UN Office on Drugs and Crime 148, 1028
capacity building 289
working groups 1036
Protection of Human Rights while Countering Terrorism 1036
Supporting and Highlighting Victims of Terrorism 1036
UN draft Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism; see counter-terrorism law-making; international humanitarian law
UN General Assembly; see also counter-terrorism law-making 441
law-making 77–9, 296
measures to eliminate international terrorism resolutions 16, 62
Sixth Committee 155, 295
anti-terrorism conventions 295–6
UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy; see also criminal justice approach (international); rule of law; UN Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force 14, 22, 78, 84, 286, 288, 300, 322, 485, 580, 991, 1027–8
capacity-building 289, 1033
Pillar IV 22, 1028–33, 1042
criminalization of terrorist acts into national legislation 1030–1
human rights 1031–3
implementation 1033
practical and operational measures 1029–31
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights 84, 144–5, 214, 462, 1035
UN High Commissioner for Refugees; see also international refugee law 117, 120, 131, 588, 856
UN High Commissioner on International Protection 856
UN Human Rights Committee 85, 144, 470
applicability of human rights law in armed conflict 462
emergency powers 87–8, 210–13, 467, 700–2, 853
General Comment 29 (states of emergency) 87, 208–9, 464
fair trial 88, 465–6, 470, 701, 853
equality before the courts 607–8
General Comment 13 (fair trial) 690, 694
General Comment 32 (fair trial) 693
independence and impartiality 690–1
military courts 690–3, 697–9
jurisdiction
extraterritoriality 36–7, 43, 461, 549, 643–4
General Comment 31 (nature of legal obligations) 37
(p. 1154)
non-discrimination 603, 607–9
General Comment 18 (non-discrimination) 601
non-refoulement 34, 124–5, 131, 581, 857
diplomatic assurances 588–9, 593
General Comment 20 (concerning prohibition of torture et al) 125
state reports 125
prohibition against torture et al 467, 520, 851
review of UN Security Council actions 100
right to liberty 851
General Comment 8 (libery and security) 472–4, 852
right to life 849
targeted killings 647–9
right to remedy 215, 380, 553–4
sanctions 90, 584
secret detention 478, 545
states of emergency 219, 603, 700–2
non-derogable rights 700–2
state responsibility 557
UN Human Rights Council 84, 296, 358, 402, 462, 467, 475, 566
military commissions 697, 702
Sub-commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights and other special procedures 693
UN Independent Expert on Terrorism 694
capacity building 1033–5, 1036–9
challenges 1038–41
Global Project on Strengthening the Legal Regime against Terrorism 1033
justice platform 1037
mandate 1033–5
methodology 1034–5
ratification and domestication of international treaties 1034, 1037–8
Terrorism Prevention Branch 1029
tools and publications 1038
training criminal justice officials 1034–5, 1037
UN peacekeeping missions 293
UN sanctions regime; see also Court of Justice of the European Union; European Union sanctions regime; impunity (institutional); Ombudsperson; proscribed terrorist organizations; terrorist financing; UN Security Council 409–18, 1074–5
aims 411
compatibility with the Charter 109
delisting 237, 239, 412–13, 417–23, 585
due process 236, 239, 294, 413–23
lack of notification 413
impact upon individuals 236–9, 584–5
national and regional cases 414–16
revised procedures 102, 236–7, 416–18
notifications of listings 416–17
statement of case 416
Sayadi, Nabil 236, 237–8
UN Security Council Resolution 1267 69, 197, 235, 293, 297, 410–11
1267 Sanctions Committee 69, 78, 81, 84, 101, 153, 295, 411–13, 419, 421
Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring Team 412–3, 417
review of consolidated list 418
Vinck, Patricia 236–8
1566 Working Group 69
UN Secretariat 293, 297–8
Senior Management Group 297
UN Secretary General 416, 420, 423, 896, 928, 931, 1027
UN Security Council; see also counter-terrorism law-making; impunity (institutional); military approach; UN sanctions regime
Chapter VII powers 18, 68–74, 238, 409–10, 460, 619
counter-terrorism approaches 68–74, 298, 580, 582–3
classification as a threat to peace 63, 68, 73, 235, 582–3, 877
criminal justice 69–73
discretion to act 66, 154
human rights standards 70, 74, 84, 252, 298, 846
incitement to commit terrorist acts 829
Iraq 74
legislative approach 56, 71–3, 154, 199, 293, 296, 1030
Lockerbie bombing 58, 67
state terrorism 65
UN Special Rapporteurs 1079
extra-judicial, summary or arbitrary executions 641
human rights on the independence of judiciary and lawyers 251, 843
promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression 855
terrorism and human rights 84, 87, 117, 120, 358, 613–15, 694–5, 697, 937, 947
torture et al 120, 370, 508, 742
diplomatic assurances 590
UN Subcommittee on the Prevention of Torture et al 483–514
(p. 1155) UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention 472, 848
UN World Conference against Racism 613
United States of America; see also Afghanistan; detention; emergency powers (state practice); Guantánamo Bay; Iraq; prohibition against torture et al; war on terror 525
Abu Ghraib 246, 397, 406, 518, 536
Christmas Day bomber 338
Criminal Investigation Task Force 432
customs service 615
detention policy post 9/11 240, 446–7, 472, 477, 661–3, 742
Goldsmith, Jack 246,
Goldstone, Justice Richard 253
Gonzales, Alberto 45, 48
Immigration and Naturalization Service 245
National Security Entry-Exit Registration System 612
Voluntary Interview Program 612
Justice Department 45, 470, 517
military commissions 656–88
National Security Strategy 75
parliamentary oversight 944
PATRIOT Act 219, 657–8, 663
material support 151–2, 200–01, 658–60, 663–4
Senate Select Committee 946
Supreme Court 242, 430, 454, 461, 519, 568, 658, 886
certiorari 477, 673
effective control 42–3
habeas corpus 218, 434, 477, 664–9, 670, 673, 675–7, 680, 682–5
military commissions 165, 529, 657, 664–9, 670–3, 675–7, 680, 682
Taguba, Major General Antonio 247
terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 (9/11) 218, 910–11
use of military force in response to terrorism
post 9/11 63, 73–4, 76, 392
use of torture et al 220, 240, 338–40, 381–2, 454, 515–20, 534–5, 536
narrow definition 246, 517
Unkhonto we Sizwe (MK); see also radicalization; South Africa 263–4, 277
victims (legal framework) 286, 908–33, 1075–6
absence of political will 21–4
access to the truth 908, 912–13, 932
best practices 22
civil society 910–14
compensation 914–27, 931
Austria 916
Belgium 916, 921
Czech Republic 921
Europe 917–23
Finland 916
France 922–3
Germany 921
Greece 922
Italy 914–18, 923
Netherlands 922
Portugal 922
Spain 918–19
United Kingdom 923
United States of America (prior to 9/11) 923–5
9/11 Fund 925–7
Council of Europe
Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism 2005 23, 929
European Union 920–1
Counter-Terrorism Strategy 23
identification of victims 915
impact of terrorist attacks 21
international 927–31
International Criminal Court 928
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia 929
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda 929
Special Tribunal for Lebanon 928–9
UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy 22, 1036
justice 22
legal rights 22, 913
locus standi 920, 931
national
Italy 915–18
nationality requirements 915–16, 919
Spain 918–19
participation in legal proceedings 913
redress 50, 912–13, 923, 932
regional
Inter-American system 811–38, 929
nationality requirements 916
reparations 50, 837, 932
restorative justice 931–2
victims (security imperative responses); see also extraordinary rendition; victims (legal framework) 577
obligation to investigate allegations 554–5
Vinck, Patricia; see UN sanctions regime
Walker Lindh, John; see military commissions
war crimes; see also impunity (non-state actor) 480, 547, 559, 880–9
jurisdiction 173, 180, 559
prohibition of acts deemed terrorist outside armed conflict 173, 175–85
participation of civilians in hostilities 179–80, 887–9
perfidy 179
violation of principle of distinction 175–7
prohibition of specific acts of terrorism committed in armed conflict 173–5
acts of terror 883–4
customary status 174
spreading terror among civilian population 142, 174–5, 880–3
threshold applicability 885–7
war on terror; see also international humanitarian law; military approach; United States of America
applicability of the Geneva Conventions, 1949 45, 48, 629, 657
as a legal concept 59, 60–2, 201–2, 430, 650, 695
lack of acceptance of 62–3, 320, 356
difference between armed conflict and terrorism 171–204
effects of war on terror 47, 320, 455
Wessels Commission; see South Africa
Widgery Commission; see Northern Ireland