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Contributors

Contributors

ORIL contributors listed by module

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Oxford Reports on International Courts of General Jurisdiction

Alexander Orakhelashvili

Lecturer, Birmingham Law School, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom

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Oxford Reports on International Criminal Law

Editors:

William Schabas

Professor of International Law at Middlesex University, London, United Kingdom

Göran Sluiter

Professor of International Criminal Law, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Managing Editors:

Yvonne McDermott

School of Law, Bangor University, United Kingdom

Belinda Macmahon

University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Oxford Reports on International Human Rights Law

Editors:

Inter-American Court/Commission

Claudia Martín

Co-Director, Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law and Professorial Lecturer in Residence, American University, Washington College of Law, United States

UN Human Rights Committee(s)

Sarah Joseph

Professor, Director of the Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, Monash University, Australia

African Court/Commission

Magnus Killander

Associate Professor and Head of Research, Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria, South Africa

European Court of Human Rights

Leo Zwaak

Programme Director of International Law of Human Rights and Criminal Justice and Senior Researcher at the Netherlands Institute of Human Rights, School of Law, Utrecht University, The Netherlands

Previous Editors:

David Harris

Carla Buckley

Shahna Esber

Jennifer Jaimes

Erica Contini

Kris Gledhill

Alexander Pung

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Oxford Reports on International Law in Domestic Courts

Editors in Chief:

André Nollkaemper

Professor of Public International Law and Vice-Dean for Research at the Faculty of Law of the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Erika de Wet

Co-Director of the Institute for International and Comparative Law in Africa and Professor of International Law at the University of Pretoria, and Professor of International Constitutional Law at the Amsterdam Center for International Law, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Managing Editor:

Belinda Macmahon

University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Project Team

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Editorial Board

Professor Eyal Benvenisti

Faculty of Law, Tel Aviv University

Magnus Killander

Associate Professor and Head of Research at the Centre for Human Rights, Faculty of Law, University of Pretoria

Edda Kristjánsdóttir

Amsterdam Center for International Law, University of Amsterdam

Professor Claudia Martin

Professorial Lecturer in Residence and co-director of the Academy on Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law, Washington College of Law, American University, Washington D.C.

Professor Riccardo Pavoni

Faculty of Law, University of Siena

Professor August Reinisch

Professor of Law, University of Vienna

Professor Dinah Shelton

Patricia Roberts Harris Research Professor of Law, George Washington University Law School

Dr Antonios Tzanakopoulos

University Lecturer in Public International Law, University of Oxford and Fellow of St Anne's College, University of Oxford

 

Associate Editors

Anna Begemann

University of Oxford

Christian Djeffal

Higher Regional Court Frankfurt

Beti Hohler

EULEX, Kosovo

Gillian MacNeil

Michèle Morel

University of Ghent

Gregor Novak

University of Vienna

Birgit Peters

Norwegian Centre for Human Rights of the University of Oslo

 

Editorial Advisory Board

Professor John Dugard

Professor of Public International Law, Leiden University; Extraordinary Professor, University of Pretoria

Professor Christof Heyns

Co-director of the Institute of International and Comparative Law in Africa, Faculty of Law, University of Pretoria, and United Nations Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary and arbitrary executions

Professor Fatsah Ouguergouz

Judge, African Court of Human and Peoples' Rights

Professor Christoph Schreuer

Professor of International Law, University of Vienna, Austria

Professor Bakhtiyar Tuzmukhamedov

Professor of International Law, Diplomatic Academy, Moscow

Professor C.G. Weeramantry

Emeritus Professor, Monash University, Former Judge, International Court of Justice

Professor Edith Brown Weiss

Francis Cabell Brown Professor of International Law, Georgetown University Law Center; Chairperson, Inspection Panel, World Bank

Professor Rüdiger Wolfrum

Director, Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law and President, International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea

Professor Sienho Yee

University Professor and Chief Expert, National Key Research Center, Wuhan University Institute of International Law, China

 

Student Editors, University of Amsterdam

 2012-2013

  • Despina Efstathiou
  • Jorian Hamster
  • Emily Lewis
  • Giulio Nessi

2011-2012

  • Rebecca Browning
  • Philip Burton
  • Berba Hidma
  • Nikita Poplavsky
  • Sara Safriet

2010-2011

  • Benita Thostrup
  • Nikki Tillekens
  • Andrew Dwyer
  • Mojan Samedi

2009-2010

  • Andrew Dwyer
  • Mojan Samedi
  • Benita Thostrup
  • Nikki Tillekens

________________________________________

Previous Associate Editors

2009-2011

2008-2009

  • Zsuzsanna Deen-Racsmany

2006-2007

  • Emily Bell
  • Jann K. Kleffner
  • Kathryn Todryk
  • Sergey Vasiliev

2005-2006

  • Siobhan McNamara
  • Maarten van der Vlugt

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Contributors

Present:

Horace Adjolohoun

Abdullah Al Faruque

Helmut Philipp Aust

Davinia Aziz

Peter Bachmayer

J Craig Barker

Kemal Baslar

Ed Bates

Stéphane Beaulac

Camille Bergmann

Kealeboga N Bojosi

Edmunds Broks

Catherine Brölmann

Thomas Burri

Elizabeth Cameron

Jernej Letnar Černič

Alessandro Chechi

Aristotle Constantinides

Sonkita Conteh

Emily Crawford

Robert J Currie

Oliver Doraisamy

Saïda El Boudouhi

Olivier de Frouville

Maarten den Heijer

Paul Eden

Marius Emberland

Maija Faurie

Anél Ferreira-Snyman

Carlo Focarelli

Ximena Fuentes

Roger Gamble

Claudia Geiringer

Lena Graber

Sara B Greenberg

Mika Grunth

Jacques Hartmann

Matthias Hartwig

Mohamed R Hassanien

Christian Hoppe

Md Zakir Hossain

Devika Hovell

Kushtrim Istrefi

Massimo Iovane

Patrícia Jerónimo

Bing Bing Jia

Waruguru Kaguongo

Nikila Kaushik

Stephen Ke

Magnus Killander

Hugh M Kindred

Eszter Kirs

Jan Kratochvíl

Shelly Kreiczer

Markus Lanter

Carl Lebeck

Sotirios-Ioannis Lekkas

Roemer Lemaître

CL Lim

Hye-Young Lim

Liang-Rong Lin

Anna-Sara Lind

Marina Litz

Tsvetanka Lozanova

Gillian MacNeil

Ivo Magnée

Dominique Maingot

Innocent Maja

Alice Margaria

Sergei Marochkin

Sam Murray

Tarisai Mutangi

Saphina Nakulima

Salem Hikmat Nasser

Jahan Navidi

Ilona Nieminen

Ragnar Nordeide

Christian Garuka Nsabimana

Opeoluwa Ogundokun

Kudret Özersay

Paolo Palchetti

Riccardo Pavoni

Francisco Pereira Coutinho

Priya Pillai

Ravina Pratap

Laura Precup-Pop

GJ Pulles

Fabián Raimondo

Mianko Ramaroson

Rohini Rangachari

Zane Ratniece

Markus Rau

August Reinisch

Eva Rieter

Martin Roger

Cedric Ryngaert

Aziz Tuffi Saliba

Elizabeth Salmón Gárate

Birgit Schlütter

Russell Schmidt

Gusel Schneider

Frank Schorkopf

Dinah Shelton

Korir Sing'oei

Mateja Steinbrück Platise

Ralph G Steinhardt

Simonetta Stirling-Zanda

Jon Stokholm

HA Strydom

Sándor Szemesi

Christian J Tams

Ruth Teitelbaum

Liam Thornton

Dire Tladi

Kathryn Todryk

Simon Van de Walle

Harmen van der Wilt

Dries Van Eeckhoutte

Juan Santos Vara

Sten Verhoeven

Maarten Vidal

André von Walter

Jan Erik Wetzel

Elizabeth Wye

Anna Wyrozumska

Alexander Yakovlev

Keren Yalin-Mor

Andreas R Ziegler

 

Past:

Elisabeth Lambert Abdelgawad

Roland Adjovi

M Eugenia Bartoloni

Beatrice I Bonafe

Iain Cameron

Avinoam Cohen

María Cortina-Borja

Erin Culbertson

Fiona de Londras

Vladimir Djeric

Andrea Egbuna-Joss

Marina Fedorova

Joseph Fleuren

Maria Gavouneli

Jeff Handmaker

Mahulena Hofmann

Thordis Ingadottir

Markos Karavias

Tally Kritzman

Zhu Lijiang

Lirette Louw

Ayesha Malik

Blanca Montejo

Carole Nivard

Roger O'Keefe

Lluís Paradell

Elad Peled

Rosemary Rayfuse

H Harry L Roque, Jr

Olga Sashnikova

David Szymczak

Marieke van Eik

Jakob Wurm

Sisay Alemahu Yeshanew

Dunia P Zongwe

 

Oxford Reports on International Law

Biographies

Helmut Philipp Aust, Dr. iur., MLE., is a research fellow at the Humboldt University Berlin. He previously held positions at the University of Munich and the University of the Federal Armed Forces, Munich. He was also a Visiting Fellow at the Lauterpacht Centre of International Law, University of Cambridge. He is the author of "Complicity and the Law of State Responsibility" (CUP, 2011, forthcoming) and is reporting on German case law for ILDC.

Davinia Aziz graduated with a Bachelor of Laws with First Class Honours from the National University of Singapore in 2002, a Bachelor of Civil Law from the University of Oxford in 2005 and a Master of Laws in International Legal Studies from the New York University School of Law in 2009. She currently serves as State Counsel in the International Affairs Division of the Attorney-General's Chambers of Singapore.

Peter Bachmayer is a research assistant to Professor August Reinisch in the context of the project 'International Law in Domestic Courts'. After graduating from the University of Vienna he has gained practical legal experience as a law clerk at various Austrian courts and as stagiaire in the European Commission. Additionally, he obtained a postgraduate LL.M. degree from Harvard Law School and his currently working on his dissertation in the area of national and international copyright law.

Stéphane Beaulac is an associate professor with tenure at the Faculty of Law, University of Montreal, Canada. He started his academic career at Dalhousie Law School in 1998. The courses he teaches include public international law and statutory interpretation. He has a Ph.D. in international law from the University of Cambridge (Darwin College), England, and was a law clerk at the Supreme Court of Canada with Madam Justice Claire L'Heureux–Dubé. He is a barrister with the Law Society of Upper Canada, since 1998. In 2006-2007, Dr. Beaulac was at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy, as a Max Weber Research Fellow. He has authored or edited six (6) books – including The Power of Language in the Making of International Law (2004) and, with William A. Schabas, International Human Rights and Canadian Law (2007) – and has written extensively on the interaction between international normativity and domestic law.

Anna Begemann is a doctoral candidate at the University of Oxford and a Berrow Foundation scholar at Lincoln College. She holds degrees from the University of Bern (MLaw) and the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (lic rer pol).

Eyal Benvenisti is Anny and Paul Yanowicz Professor of Human Rights at the Faculty of Law, Tel Aviv University. He specialises in international law, constitutional law, human rights and administrative law. Benvenisti has been Director of the Cegla Center for Interdisciplinary Research of the Law, and Hersch Lauterpacht Professor of International Law and Director of the Minerva Center for Human Rights at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He has also been a visiting Professor of Law at Harvard, Columbia, New York University, the University of Michigan and the University of Pennsylvania. Benvenisti has been a member of the International Law Association, Committee on International Law in National Courts. In 2006 Benvenisti won the Humboldt Research Award, awarded by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

Benvenisti's publications include: The International Law of Occupation (Princeton University Press, 1993), Sharing Transboundary Resources: International Law and Optimal Resource Use (Cambridge University Press, 2002), and 'Judicial Misgivings regarding the Application of International Norms: An Analysis of Attitudes of National Courts' 4 European Journal of International Law 159 (1993). Benvenisti is a Founding Co-Editor of Theoretical Inquiries in Law, serving as Editor in Chief from 2003-2006

Edmunds Broks reports on Latvia for ILDC. His current professional posts include Legal Adviser, Ministry of Justice of Republic of Latvia, Department of the European Court of Justice, and Lecturer of Public International Law and EU Law, University of Latvia. He has published the following books and articles: Eiropas tiesības, (co-authors: Gatawis, S., Bule, Z.), EuroFaculty, Riga, 2002; Rights of Private Applicants to Challenge Acts adopted by EC Institutions: Practice and Deficiencies of Application of Article 230 (4) of the EC Treaty, Likums un Tiesibas, Vol. 5. No.4 (44), April 2003. p.118.

Catherine Brölmann (jurisdiction: The Netherlands) - Associate Professor of International Law, University of Amsterdam; in 2007 on secondment to the legal service of the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs; editor on the board of the journal International Community Law Review; member of the Studygroup on Responsibility of International Organisations of the International Law Association. Recent publications include:

  • The Institutional Veil in Public International Law: International Organisations and the Law of Treaties, Hart Publishers, Oxford, 2007 [forthcoming].
  • 'A Flat Earth? International Organizations in the System of International Law', in J. Klabbers (ed.), International Organizations, Series: Library of Essays in International Law, Ashgate, 2006, pp. 183-206.
  • 'Beyond state sovereignty: The Human Right to water' (with Th. Kiefer), in 5 Non-State actors and International Law 2005, pp. 183-208.
  • 'Law-Making Treaties: Form and Function in International Law', 74 Nordic Journal of International Law 2005, pp. 383-404.

Carla Buckley LLB (UNSW), LLM (Cantab) Barrister (Aust) is a Research Fellow at the Human Rights Law Centre, University of Nottingham, and is also a member of the editorial board of the Human Rights Law Review. Her publications include the first extensive study of litigation under the European Convention of Human Rights and most recently she co-authored the second edition of the seminal legal textbook Harris, O'Boyle and Warbrick: Law of the European Convention of Human Rights (2009). Since 1999 she has acted as legal adviser in the conduct of human rights litigation before international forums. She has taught law in Europe and Australia, and regularly participates in international human rights law training courses.

Elizabeth Cameron holds a Bachelor of Political Science with a major in Government and is currently completing her law degree at the University of Sydney.

Jernej Letnar Černič is a Max Weber postdoctoral fellow at European University Institute. He holds degrees from University of Ljubljana, University of Lund, European University Institute, Institut international des droits de l'homme, and University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK.

Alessandro Chechi, PhD (European University Institute), LLM (University College London), JD (University of Siena), is a researcher at the Art-Law Centre, Faculty of Law, University of Geneva, and lecturer in public international law at the Université Catholique of Lille. His fields of research include international cultural heritage law, international dispute settlement, international organizations and law and religion.

Avinoam Cohen is a PhD candidate at the Tel Aviv University, Faculty of Law. He studies the democratic participation of migrants in the regulation of migration, with a particular focus on transnational regulatory designs and the role of non-state agents in regulation. Avinoam also directs the Concord International Human Rights Law Clinic at the College of Management, School of Law, and instructs a workshop on rights of migrants in international law at the Hebrew University.

Aristotle Constantinides received his PhD in International Law from Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in 2003. He did a post-doc at the same University. He has been a lawyer in Greece and an associate of the Institute of International Public Law and International Relations of Thessaloniki for several years. Since September 2006 he has been a lecturer in international law and human rights at the Department of Law of the University of Cyprus.

Erica Contini received her BA and BSc from the University of Rochester, JD from American University's Washington College of Law, and LLM (Human Rights) from Monash University. She was admitted as an attorney in the District of Columbia in 2007 and as a Legal Practitioner of the Supreme Court of New South Wales and Solicitor and Barrister of the Supreme Court of Victoria in 2008. She is the current Project Officer of the Castan Centre for Human Rights Law in the Law Faculty of Monash University where she also tutors in Constitutional Law.

Emily Crawford is a post doctoral research fellow at the Faculty of Law at the University of Sydney. She researches in the area of international humanitarian law and non-state actors.

Robert J. Currie is an Associate Professor with tenure at the Schulich School of Law, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada, where he teaches International Criminal Law and International Advocacy. He holds an LL.M. with distinction from the University of Edinburgh and has been a barrister and solicitor of the Bar of Nova Scotia since 2000. He is the author of International and Transnational Criminal Law (Toronto: Irwin, 2010), and a co-author of Kindred and Saunders, eds., International Law: Chiefly as interpreted and Applied in Canada, 7th ed. (Toronto: Edmond Montgomery, 2006).S

Fiona de Londras, BCL (Hons), LL.M (NUI) is a PhD Candidate at the Centre for Criminal Justice and Human Rights, National University of Ireland (Cork). Her research focuses on habeas corpus in times of terrorist-related emergency. She has held visiting positions in the University of Peshawar (Pakistan), Emory University and the British Institute of International and Comparative Law and is a lecturer in Human Rights Law in Griffith College Dublin (Ireland).

Erika de Wet is a Co-Director of the Institute for International and Comparative Law in Africa and Professor of International Law at the University of Pretoria since January 2011. Between 2004 and 2010 she was a full-time (tenured) Professor of Constitutional Law at the Amsterdam Center for International Law, University of Amsterdam (The Netherlands), a position which she still holds part-time. She further lectures in international law at the University of Zurich (Switzerland) and the University of Bonn (Germany) on a regular basis. Between 2007 and 2010 she served as a member of the Advisory Committee on Issues of Public International Law of the Netherlands(CAVV).

She completed her basic legal training (B.Iur., LL.B.) as well as her doctoral thesis (LL.D.) at the University of the Free State (South Africa). She further holds an LL.M. from Harvard University and completed her Habilitationsschrift, at the University of Zurich (Switzerland) in December 2002. It was published with Hart Publishing (United Kingdom) in 2004 under the title The Chapter VII Powers of the United Nations Security Council.

Before focussing on international (institutional) law, she specialised in Comparative Constitutional Law, with a doctoral thesis on The Constitutional Enforceability of Economic and Social Rights: the Meaning of the German Constitutional model for South Africa (Butterworths, South Africa, 1996). From 1991 to 1993 she was a Visiting Scholar at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law in Heidelberg (Germany). Thereafter she was employed at the International Labour Office (ILO) in Geneva (Switzerland) and the Swiss Institute of Comparative Law in Lausanne (Switzerland). She also lectured at Brandeis University (USA) in the spring of 1999 and held the position of Associate Professor of the Law of International Organisations at Leiden University during 2000 and 2001.

Professor De Wet publishes and lectures internationally on the law of international organisations; international human rights law; comparative constitutional law and the emerging international constitutional order.

Other current editorial positions include the African Human Rights Law Journal; Austrian Journal of Public and International Law (ZOR); Közjogi Szemle (Hungarian Public Law Review); and the Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal (PER).

Christian Djeffal has recently finished and defended his PhD thesis at the Humboldt-University of Berlin, where he has been an assistant to Georg Nolte for three years. He is currently legal clerk at the Higher Regional Court Frankfurt (based at the Higher Court in Darmstadt). His research interests include international law (in particular treaty interpretation) and European law. He has been a member of ILDC since 2010 and is also coordinator of the German reporting team.

Vladimir Djeric, LL.B., LL.M. (Michigan), is an attorney-at-law with Mikijelj Jankovic & Bogdanovic in Belgrade, Serbia. In addition to appearing regularly before various Serbian courts, he has acted as counsel in proceedings before the International Court of Justice, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, and the European Court of Human Rights. Previously he was an advisor to the minister of foreign affairs of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia/Serbia and Montenegro (2000-2004), and was a substitute member of the Venice Commission of the Council of Europe (2003-2005).

Oliver Doraisamy is a final year student enrolled in a combined Bachelor of Laws/Bachelor of Arts in International Studies degree at the University of Technology, Sydney. In 2013, as part of the Honours requirements of his law degree, he completed a research thesis exploring the relationship between international human rights law and Australia’s domestic system. Upon graduating he will be commencing full-time work in the area of foreign affairs.

Saïda El Boudouhi is currently Associate Professor (maître de conférences) at Université Paris II Panthéon-Assas. She teaches and writes in the fields of public international law and EU law. She is reporter and the coordinator of the French team.

Marius Emberland (Norway) is Associate Professor at the University of Oslo. D. Phil. (Oxon), LL.M. (Harvard), cand. jur. (Oslo). Author of The Human Rights of Companies: Exploring the Structure of ECHR Protection (Oxford University Press 2006).

Maija Faurie is a junior researcher at the Social Insurance Institute of Finland where her research focuses, inter alia, on the fundamental and human rights aspect of social rights and the rights of the Sámi people. She has also been involved in the drafting of national legislation concerning the coordination of social security systems in the European Union. She studied at the University of Wales, Swansea (LL.B) and the University of Amsterdam (LL.M). Maija reports on Finland for ILDC.

Dr Marina Fedorova graduated in 1999 from St. Petersburg State University (Russia), Faculty of Law (diploma summa cum laude). In 2000, accomplished LL.M. program at the University of Connecticut School of Law (Edmund Muskie Scholarship). Since 2001 lecturer at the Department of International Law, St. Petersburg State University, Faculty of Law. Ph.D. thesis (2004) was devoted to the World Trade Organization dispute settlement mechanism. Published a monograph on the WTO dispute settlement and a number of articles on different issues of international economic law. Was a guest lecturer at the universities of Irkutsk (Russia), Kiel (Germany), and Riga Graduate School of Law (Latvia).

Carlo Focarelli is Professor of International Law at the University of Perugia. He also teaches Private International Law and International Human Rights at the LUISS University of Rome. He is the author of a number of books, including Le contromisure nel diritto internazionale, Milan, 1994; Equo processo e Convenzione europea dei diritti dell'uomo, Padua, 2001; Lezioni di storia del diritto internazionale, Perugia, 2002; Digesto del diritto internazionale, Naples, 2004; as well as of many articles on International Law.

Dr Maria Gavouneli, BA (Hons), LL.M. (Cantab), Ph.D. (Cantab) is a Lecturer in International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Athens. She reports on Greece and Cyprus for ILDC.

Apart from two monographs, Pollution from offshore installations, Martinus Nijhoff, 1995 (Prix Paul Guggenheim 1995) and State Immunity and the Rule of Law, Ant. N. Sakkoulas, Athens 2001, her recent publications include: Anastasia Strati, Maria Gavouneli & Nikos Skourtos (eds.), Time Before and Time After - Unresolved Issues and New Challenges to the Law of the Sea, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Hague/London/New York 2006; Seafarers rights in Greece, in Deirdre Fitzpatrick & Michael Anderson (eds.), Seafarers rights, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2005, pp. 305-340; Prefecture of Voiotia v. Federal Republic of Germany, 95 AJIL 2001, pp. 198-204 (with Ilias Bantekas); and Shamayev & 12 others v. Russia and Georgia, 100 AJIL 2006.

Claudia Geiringer reports on New Zealand for ILDC, and is a Senior Lecturer at the Victoria University of Wellington School of Law, New Zealand and the Acting Co-Director of the New Zealand Centre for Public Law. She was previously a Crown Counsel at the Crown Law Office of the New Zealand Government.

Kris Gledhill was, until 2006, a barrister in full-time practice in the English courts, specialising in appellate advocacy in the areas of mental health law and prison law. In 2007, he joined the faculty at the University of Auckland Law School, where his teaching responsibilities include international human rights law.

Jeff Handmaker reports on the Netherlands for ILDC. Since February 2007 he has been a university lecturer in law, human rights and development at the International Institute of Social Studies (ISS) of Erasmus University in The Hague, The Netherlands. He is also an honorary research fellow in the School of Law of the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa. He holds a bachelors degree in law from Newcastle University and a masters degree in law and development from the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) of the University of London, both in the United Kingdom and holds a PhD from the Faculty of Law of Utrecht University. In 1995 he was called to the bar of England and Wales. In 1993 and between 1996 until 2000 he worked for the South African organisation Lawyers for Human Rights and also worked a short time for the Dutch Refugee Council. From 2000 until 2006 he worked as a freelance consultant, completing projects in various locations in Europe, Southern Africa, West Africa, the Mahgreb and Middle-East. His publications include 'Seeking justice, guaranteeing protection and ensuring due process', Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, Volume 21, No. 4 (2003); Advancing Refugee Protection in South Africa (2008, Oxford: Berghahn); Advocating for Accountability: Civic-State Interactions to Protect Refugees in South Africa (2009, Antwerp: Intersentia) and Mobilising Social Justice: Perspectives from Researchers and Practitioners (2010, Pretoria: Pretoria University Law Press).

David Harris, Co-Director University of Nottingham Human Rights Law Centre and Professor Emeritus, School of Law, University of Nottingham. Formerly Professor of Public International Law, University of Nottingham. Editor Human Rights Law Review. Publications: Harris, O'Boyle and Warbrick, The Law of the European Convention on Human Rights, Butterworth; Harris and Joseph, eds., The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and UK Law, OUP; Harris and Livingstone, eds, The Inter-American System of Human Rights, OUP; Harris, Cases and Materials on International Law, 6th edn, Sweet and Maxwell; Bailey, Harris and Jones, Civil Liberties: Cases and Materials, 5th edn, Butterworth; Harris, The European Social Charter, 2nd edn (with J.Darcy), University of Virginia Press; Gomien, Harris and Zwaack, The European Convention on Human Rights and the European Social Charter, Council of Europe Press; Garner, Encyclopaedia of Environmental Law, Butterworth, 1976-2003.

Jacques Hartmann is Lecturer in International Law at Dundee University and is also in charge of organising the Venice Academy of Human Rights, an inter-disciplinary summer school held yearly at the European Inter-University Institute for Human Rights and Democratisation, Venice. Before returning to academia, he worked as a lawyer at the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Jacques holds a PhD from Cambridge University, where he also worked as a Research Associate at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law. Jacques has taught International Law, International Human Rights Law, and European Human Rights Law at the Universities of Durham, United Kingdom, and Copenhagen, Denmark, as well as at the European Inter-University Institute for Human Rights and Democratisation.

Niamh Hayes is an LL.M. graduate and Ph.D. candidate at the Irish Centre for Human Rights, National University of Ireland, Galway. Her Ph.D. research analyses the adequacy of prosecutions for rape before international criminal tribunals, for which she has been awarded a postgraduate Government of Ireland scholarship by the Irish Research Council for the Humanities and Social Sciences. She lectures in International Criminal Law on the LL.M. programme in Trinity College Dublin.

Christof Heyns holds the degrees MA LLB University of Pretoria; LLM Yale Law School; and PhD University of the Witwatersrand. He is Professor of Human Rights Law and Co-director of the Institute for International and Comparative Law in Africa at the University of Pretoria. In August 2010 he was appointed as United Nations Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions. He is an adjunct professor at the Washington College of Law of the American University in Washington DC, USA, and a Visiting Fellow at Kellog College at Oxford University, UK, where he has been teaching in the masters’ programme since 2005.

He is a former Director of the Centre for Human Rights in the Faculty of Law, University of Pretoria, as well as former Dean of that faculty. He has published widely in the field of international human rights law, including the book The Impact of the United Nations Human Rights Treaties on the Domestic Level (with Frans Viljoen) and especially on human rights law in Africa (including the book Human Rights Law in Africa). He is the founding editor-in-chief of the African Human Rights Law Reports and was the founding co-editor of the African Human Rights Law Journal and serves on the editorial boards of academic law journals in the UK, France, Brazil, The Netherlands, Costa Rica and Uganda. He has served as consultant to the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (inter alia on the establishment of a regional human rights system is South East Asia), the African Union and the South African Human Rights Commission.

His publications have appeared in English, Afrikaans, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Arabic. He has received a Fulbright Fellowship (to Yale Law School) and a Humboldt Fellowship (to the Max Planck Institute for International and Comparative Public Law in Heidelberg, Germany), as well as the University of Pretoria’s Chancellor’s Award for Teaching and Learning.

Beti Hohler works as a Supreme Court/Appellate Court legal officer in the internationalized courts in Kosovo, the EU Rule of Law Mission (EULEX). She holds two master degrees in law, with a specialization in public international law, from the University of Ljubljana (Slovenia) and the University of Amsterdam (the Netherlands) respectively. She passed the bar exam in her native Slovenia in 2010. Previous posts include International Criminal Court (intern 2007/08), Court of Appeals in Ljubljana, Slovenia (2008-2009) and Law Firm Kozinc and Partners in Ljubljana, Slovenia (2010-2011).

Christian Hoppe, Dr. iur, covering Germany. Study of law at the University of Cologne, Research Fellow to Prof. Dr. Juergen F. Baur, Law Centre for European and International Cooperation, University of Cologne, 2003-2005; Research Fellow to Prof. Dr. Bernhard Kempen, Institute for Public International Law and Foreign Public Law, University of Cologne, 2005-2006. Publication: "Staatshaftung und Rechtsschutz bei Verletzung grundfreiheitlicher Schutzpflichten", 2006 (State Liability and Judicial Protection in Case of Member States' Failure to protect the Basic Freedoms), doctoral thesis (forthcoming).

Devika Hovell is currently undertaking a doctorate at the University of Oxford, writing on the law-making functions of the Security Council and its subsidiary organs. Her previous publications on the relationship between international and domestic law include two books, No Country is an Island: Australia and international law (2006) (with Hilary Charlesworth, Madelaine Chiam and George Williams) and The Fluid State: International Law and National Legal Systems (2005) (edited with Hilary Charlesworth, Madelaine Chiam and George Williams). She has also written several articles on the subject, including "A Tale of Two Systems: The Use of International Law in Constitutional Interpretation in Australia and South Africa" (2005) 29 Melbourne University Law Review 95 (with George Williams); "Lifting the Executive Veil: Australia's Accession to the First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights" (2003) 24(2) Adelaide Law Review 187; and "Deep Anxieties: Australia and the International Legal Order" (2003) 25 Sydney Law Review 423 (with Hilary Charlesworth, Madelaine Chiam and George Williams).

Sotirios-Ioannis Lekkas LL.M (Athens) (UCL), reports for ILDC on Greece and the UK. He is currently reading towards a DPhil in Law at the University of Oxford. He has studied law in Athens, London, and Berlin, and he has worked as a research assistant for UCL and the British Institute of International and Comparative Law. He is a Member of the Bar in Athens, Greece (non-practicing).

Hye-Young Lim is an LLD Candidate, Academic Tutor for LLM Human Rights and Democratisation at the Africa Center for Human Rights University of Pretoria, South Africa. Hye-Young wrote an assessment of the current social assistance grants in South Africa in times of AIDS (accepted and to be published in 2007 - International Journal of Children's Rights), as well as Commentary on selected communications before the Commission in 2003 (Co-author with Ms Mianko Ramaroson) (accepted and to be published) and Alleviating child poverty in South Africa - The role of social assistance grants, ESR Review Vol 7 No 1 (April, 2006).

Massimo Iovane is a full professor of International Law at the law faculty of Federico II University, Naples, co-ordinator of the Research Doctorate courses and visiting professor at the University of Paris 1, Panthéon Sorbonne for 2006.

Kushtrim Istrefi (PhD candidate, LLM) is a Visiting Fellow at the Graduate Institute, Geneva and a Lecturer of International and European Law at the University of Prishtina, Kosovo. Previously he has been a visiting scholar at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law, University of Cambridge and at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law in Heidelberg. His publications and research interests lie in the field of international legal theory, treaty conflicts, EU external relations law, international and domestic constitutional law, secession and human rights law. He has also served as a Legal Advisor to the Deputy Prime Minister of Kosovo on secondment from the UNDP and a Legal Advisor with the USAID justice reform programme. He reports on Kosovo for ILDC.

Patrícia Jerónimo is Assistant Professor at the Law School of the University of Minho. She did her PhD at the Law Department of the European University Institute, in 2008, with a thesis entitled Identidade, Cidadania, Alteridade: Portugal ainda entre a Europa e o Atlântico [Identity, Citizenship, Otherness: Portugal still between Europe and the Atlantic]. At the Law School of the University of Minho, she currently teaches Comparative Law in the Undergraduate Law Program and Human Rights and Cultural Difference in the Master in Human Rights. She has taught Constitutional Law, International Law and Human Rights to the Undergraduate Law Program at the National University of Timor-Leste. She has published extensively on human rights, citizenship, immigration, multiculturalism and the East Timorese legal system. In 2011, she did a study on the judicial implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in cases involving migrant children, for the Regional Office for Europe of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, and, in 2012, a study on the legal statutes for the ACP Observatory on Migration, for the International Organization for Migration.

Bing Bing Jia reports on China for ILDC. He is currently a Professor of International Law at Tsinghua University Law School, Beijing. Previously he held the position of Legal Officer, the Appeals Chamber/Trial Chamber III/Trial Chamber II of the UN International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia.

Sarah Joseph is the Director of the Castan Centre for Human Rights Law at Monash University, Melbourne. She is the main author of The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Cases, Materials and Commentary (OUP, 2004), and A Handbook on the Individual Complaints Procedures of the UN (OMCT, 2006). She has also published books or articles on the relationship between human rights and corporations, international trade, and terrorism, amongst other topics. She has taught a variety of human rights subjects at undergraduate and postgraduate level, and has undertaken many training courses for Australian and overseas governmental bodies.

Markos Karavias, M.Phil., M.Jur.(Oxon), LL.M.(Athens) is an Associate Editor of ILDC and reports on Greece. He is a Member of the Bar in Athens, Greece. He is currently reading towards a D.Phil in Law at the University of Oxford.

Nikila Kaushik is a recent LLB graduate from the University of Sydney and will soon be moving to New York to complete an internship with the Australian Permanent Mission to the UN.

Stephen Ke is a third year law student at the University of Sydney studying a combined Bachelor of Political, Economic and Social Sciences/Bachelor of Laws degree.

Magnus Killander is Associate Professor and head of research at the Centre for Human Rights, Faculty of Law, University of Pretoria. He is editor-in-chief of the African Human Rights Law Reports, co-editor of the African Human Rights Law Journal, Africa editor of the Oxford Reports on International Human Rights Law and a member of the Editorial Board of the Oxford Reports on International Law in Domestic Courts. His research interests include international institutional law, regional human rights systems, the relationship between national and international law and compliance with international human rights law.

Hugh M. Kindred reports on Canada for ILDC. A member of the Bars of England and Nova Scotia, Hugh Kindred is Professor of Law at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada where he teaches international law, commercial law and marine transportation. He has also worked for UNCTAD in Geneva and taught at the University of Sydney, Australia. An advisor to governments, he has published many articles and books, of which Maritime Law, written with Edgar Gold and Aldo Chircop, was co-winner of the Walter Owen Book Prize for the best text in English in Canada in 2003-2005. He is also co-general editor, with Phillip Saunders, and co-author of International Law Chiefly as Interpreted and Applied in Canada, which is now in its 7th edition (2006). In 2003 the Canadian Association of Law Teachers honoured Professor Kindred with its Award for Academic Excellence.

Jann K. Kleffner is an Assistant Professor of Public International Law at the Amsterdam Center for International Law at the faculty of Law of the Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Previously, he worked as a Research Associate and Lecturer in International Humanitarian Law at the University of Amsterdam, as Visiting Lecturer in International Criminal Law at the University of Leiden, as a contractor at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, and as Assistant Managing Editor of the Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law at the TMC Asser Institute for Private and Public International Law, International Commercial Arbitration and European Law in The Hague.

He is a member of the Committee on compensation for victims of war of the International Law Association, a Visiting Lecturer at the Netherlands Defence Academy and at The Hague Forum for Judicial Expertise. He has also served as an expert in a series of expert meetings organised jointly by the International Committee of the Red Cross and the TMC Asser Institute, The Hague, on "Direct Participation in Hostilities" and as a member of a group of experts consulting the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court on Complementarity in Practice.

Mr. Kleffner studied law in Germany, the United Kingdom and The Netherlands and graduated from the Univerisity of Amsterdam (LL.M. 2000), where he also received his PhD in 2007 for a thesis entitled "Complementarity in the Rome Statute and National Criminal Jurisdictions".

He publishes and lectures on international humanitarian law and international criminal law.

Jan Kratochvíl, LL.M. (Nottingham), LL.M. (Prague), reports on the Czech Republic for ILDC. He is a PhD. candidate at the Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic and currently a visiting scholar at the American University - Washington College of Law. His research focuses primarily on human rights law.

Edda Kristjánsdóttir, a member of the Amsterdam Center for International Law, was Managing Editor of the Oxford Reports on International Law in Domestic Courts from February 2005 until January 2010.

Previous legal editorial positions include Managing Editor of the New York University Journal of International Law and Politics (1997-1998), and of International Law FORUM du droit international, the former Journal of the International Law Association (2002-2005); and being a member of the Editorial Board of the Leiden Journal of International Law (2001-2002). Ms Kristjánsdóttir was also Editor in Chief of the Permanent Court of Arbitration's Peace Palace Papers from 2001-2003.

A graduate of the New York University School of Law (J.D. 1998), Ms Kristjánsdóttir was admitted into practice at the New York State Bar in January 1999, as well as the federal district courts for the Eastern and Southern Districts of New York, and (in 2000) the District of Columbia. After two years of practicing law at an international law firm in New York City, she became a law clerk at the International Court of Justice in The Hague, followed by a position as Legal Counsel at the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), also in The Hague. At the PCA, she worked for the Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission, and coordinated the work of the PCA Steering Committee on Mass Claims Processes, culminating in the book International Mass Claims Processes: Legal and Practical Perspectives, (Howard M. Holtzmann and Edda Kristjánsdóttir eds., OUP 2006).

Ms Kristjánsdóttir has published on the topic of international mass claims and international water law. She currently lectures at the University of Amsterdam on public international law.

Tally Kritzman reports on Israel for ILDC. A JSD candidate and a professor (without tenure) in the Tel Aviv University School of Law, and a visiting scholar in the Center for International and Area Studies, Yale University. Her scholarly writing and work as a lawyer focuses on immigration law. Formerly a clerk of the honorable retired Justice and Deputy President Mishael Cheshin in the Israeli Supreme Court.

Liang-Rong Lin reports on Taiwan for ILDC, and earned an LL.M. from Soochow University and LL.B. from National Taiwan University. LiangRong was a Visiting Scholar at Yale Law School and is currently public prosecutor, Taiwan Taipei District Prosecutors Office.

Dr Lirette Louw, LL.B (Free State), LL.M, LL.D (Pretoria). Dr Louw works for the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development in the Branch: Legislation and Constitutional Development.

Publication list:

  • F Viljoen & L Louw "State compliance with the recommendations of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights" to be published in the American Journal of International Law.
  • F Viljoen & L Louw "The status of the findings of the African Commission: From moral persuasion to legal obligation" (2004) 48 Journal of African Law 1-22.
  • L Louw (Series and volume author) "HIV/AIDS and Human Rights in South Africa" (2004) Centre for the Study of AIDS & Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria.
  • L Louw (Series author) "HIV/AIDS and Human Rights in Namibia"; "HIV/AIDS and Human Rights in Botswana"; HIV/AIDS and Human Rights in Zimbabwe"; "HIV/AIDS and Human Rights in Mozambique"; "HIV/AIDS and Human Rights in Malawi"; "HIV/AIDS and Human Rights in Swaziland"; "HIV/AIDS and Human Rights in Zambia" (2004) Centre for the Study of AIDS & Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria.
  • M Van der Linde & L Louw "Considering the interpretation and implementation of article 24 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights in light of the SERAC communication" (2003) 1 African Human Rights Law Journal 167-187.
  • L Louw "Domestic effect of UN Human Rights Treaties in Africa (including references to findings by treaty bodies)", paper delivered in Turku, Finland in September 2003, published at Institute for Human Rights Åbo Akademi University.
  • SF Musungu & L Louw "The Pursuit of Justice in Post-Genocide Rwanda: An evaluation of the international and domestic legal responses" (2001) 2 East African Journal of Peace & Human Rights 196-214.
  • L Louw "Hate Speech in Africa: Formulating an appropriate legal response for a racially and ethnically divided continent with specific reference to South Africa and Rwanda" (November 2001): dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree LLM (Human Rights and Democratisation in Africa) University of Pretoria (56 pages). Published in the International Yearbook of Regional Human Rights Masters Programmes (2001), 157-193, Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria.
  • L Louw "Risk Assessment: Democratic Republic of Congo Post-Laurent Kabila" (2001) 2 African Journal on Conflict Resolution 87-104.

Tsvetanka Lozanova has been a Research Associate of Public International Law, PhD. at the Institute for Legal Sciences of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences since 1992. Her scientific interests and publications are in the field of Law of Treaties, International Human Rights, International Law and Domestic Law, International Environmental Law, International Justice. In 1994 she was a SSRC-Mac Arthur Foundation Visiting Fellow at Yale University. Member of: the International Law Association, the European Society of International Law, the American Society of International Law, the Bulgarian Association of International Law.

Publications:

  • Tsvetanka Lozanova, Prilagane na mezhdunarodnite dogovori za zashtita na pravata na choveka ot Varhovniya administrativen sad v Bulgaria (Application of the International Treaties for the Protection of Human Rights by the Supreme Administrative Court in Bulgaria), in Yuridicheski Svyat (Juridical World), No. 1, 2005, at 127-69 [journal]; and
  • Tsvetanka Lozanova, Prilagane na mezhdunarodnite dogovori za zashtita na pravata na choveka ot Varhovniya kasatsionen sad v Bulgaria (Application of the International Treaties for the Protection of Human Rights by the Supreme Court of Cassation in Bulgaria), in Yuridicheski Svyat (Juridical World), No. 1, 2006, at 113-57.

Belinda Macmahon, an Australian lawyer, was with the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague, Netherlands, from 2001 to 2009, where she was employed as Legal Counsel/Chief Editor. In that capacity she edited a number of books on issues of public international law, including two compilation volumes published by Oxford University Press ('Redressing Injustices Through Mass Claims Processes', 2006, and 'Multiple Party Actions in International Arbitration', 2009), six volumes of the Permanent Court of Arbitration Award Series (TMC Asser Press), and seven volumes of the PCA's Peace Palace Papers series (Kluwer Law International). She was the Registrar of the Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission from 2004 until the competion of its mandate in 2009. She is qualified as a solicitor in South Australia, England and Wales, and Hong Kong SAR.

Gillian MacNeil received her LL.B. from Dalhousie University's Law School, her LL.L. from the University of Ottawa and LL.M. from the University of Cambridge.

Dominique Maingot is a graduate of The University of Sydney (JD) and Boston University (BA), and in 2013 was preparing for admission as a solicitor in New South Wales, Australia.

Ayesha Malik (LL.B class of 1996, Pakistan College of Law) was admitted to Harvard Law School for the LL.M program. She has been awarded the prestigious title of Landon Gammon Fellow by the Harvard University for her outstanding merit. She is the first Pakistani to receive this award. She has specialized in administrative law, international commercial arbitration and international trade law.

Alice Margaria reports on Italy for ILDC. She is a Ph.D. candidate at the Law Department of the European University Institute, Florence. She holds a 5-year law degree summa cum laude from the University of Turin (2009), an LL.M. with distinction in Human Rights Law from University College London (2010) as well as an LL.M. in Comparative, European, and International Laws from the European University Institute (2011). Her present research investigates the legal definition of fatherhood endorsed by human rights law, with a particular focus on the jurisprudence of the European and the Inter-American Courts of Human Rights. Recent publications include 'Who and What is a Mother? Maternity, Responsibility and Liberty' (co-written with Prof. Michael Freeman, contribution: 66%), forthcoming in Theoretical Inquiries in Law 13(1) 2012; 'The Right to "Genetic Truth" of Children Born as a result of Wartime Rape and Sexual Exploitation - a Particular Focus on BiH', forthcoming in International Journal of Rule of Law, Transitional Justice and Human Rights, Volume 2 (January 2012).

Sergei Marochkin Sergei Yu Marochkin is Professor, Doctor of Juridical Sciences in international law and in legal theory. Honoured Jurist of the Russian Federation (conferred by the President of the Russian Federation).

Professor Marochkin is Director of the Institute of State and Law at the Tyumen State University (Tyumen, Russia). Member of the Russian Association of International Law (RAIL) and of the Executive Committee of the RAIL, as well as member of the European Society of International Law.

Editorial positions include a membership of the editorial boards and editorial councils of four academic law journals (in Russia and Ukraine).

Professor Marochkin has been participant and coordinator of the Russian team (scholars of the Tyumen State University) in the Project of the Amsterdam and Oxford Universities “International Law in Domestic Courts (ILDC)” since 2007.

He has been visiting professor at the Faculty of Law, Economics and Administration, University of Lorrain (France), at the Faculty of Law, University of Tartu (international summer school) (Estonia). He also lectured at the Lakehead University (Canada), at the University of Luneburg (Germany).

Professor Marochkin’s research interests are focused primarily on theory of international law, realization and effectiveness of international law, its implementation in and interaction with a domestic legal system.

Claudia Martin is Professional Lecturer in Residence and Co-Director of the Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law at the American University, Washington College of Law. She specialises in international law, international and comparative human rights law and inter-American human rights law. Professor Martin has published extensively in these areas, and has also published on the domestic application of international human rights standards, co-authoring International Dimension of Human Rights: Guide of its Application in Domestic Law (Inter-American Development Bank, Washington DC 2002). In her capacity as Co-Director of the Human Rights Legal Partnership Program at the Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, she has, inter alia, designed and established a program to enhance domestic legal capacity in international human rights law in law schools in several Latin American countries. As Project Co-Director of the Inter-American Human Rights Digest Project at the Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, Professor Martin has, inter alia, advised domestic courts on the application of Inter-American human rights standards. Over the years, Professor Martin has held several positions in which she has developed programs and materials for training judges and lawyers on the domestic application of international human rights law.

Yvonne McDermott holds a degree in Law from the National University of Ireland, Galway, and an LL.M. in Public International Law from Leiden University, The Netherlands. She is currently undertaking a PhD in the Irish Centre for Human Rights where her research is on fair trial rights in international criminal proceedings. Yvonne is the winner of the inaugural Böhler Franken Koppe Wijngaarden advocaten/Hague Academic Coalition Award for Young Professionals (2009).

Blanca Montejo is an associate in the international arbitration and public international law groups of Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer. Blanca studied law at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. She completed her studies at the Istituto Universtario Europeo in Florence where she obtained an LLM in Comparative, European and International Law and at New York University where she obtained a second LLM in General Studies specialising in Public and Private International Law.

Blanca is an occasional lecturer at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, the Universite Paris X (Paris-Nanterre), and the Universidad de Buenos Aires. She was also co-director of the first summer course on international arbitration organised by the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid in July 2005.

She works currently in New York where she specialises in international commercial and investment arbitration and in public international law in relation to land and maritime boundaries. Blanca is a member of the Madrid and the New York Bars.

Michèle Morel obtained her doctoral degree in 2012 at the Law Faculty of Ghent University. Her research dealt with the international legal protection against arbitrary displacement. Michèle studied at Ghent University, Nottingham University and Oxford University. She is currently working as a legal adviser on asylum and immigration law, at Caritas International, Brussels, Belgium.

Sam Murray reports on Australia for ILDC. He is currently completing a combined LLB and Bachelor of Arts (majoring in Government and International Relations) at the University of Sydney.

Saphina Nakulima is a human rights advocate with a Master of Laws from Makerere University; a Diploma in Legal Practice from the Law Development Centre; and a certificate in good governance from the University of Pretoria. Saphina has five years experience in human rights work including legal representation of forced migrants, especially survivors of torture and violence; advocacy on social and economic rights, access to justice and torture. She is a member of the Uganda Law Society and the East African Law Society. Currently, she works as the Program Manager Access to Justice program of the Refugee Law Project.

Jahan Navidi holds a Bachelor of Laws (Hons) and a Bachelor of International & Global Studies from the University of Sydney, Australia. He is currently working as a Graduate Lawyer at the Sydney office of global law firm Baker & McKenzie, having also worked in their Chicago office. He has previously worked at Australian think tank, The Lowy Institute for International Policy and as an editor for leading undergraduate international relations publication The Sydney Globalist. He has also published articles on topics such corruption, human rights, supply chains and immigration for a variety of publications, including the American Bar Association.

André Nollkaemper is Professor of Public International Law and Director of the Amsterdam Center for International Law at the faculty of Law of the Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Previous academic positions include Fellow of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Erasmus University Rotterdam, Visiting Scholar at the School of Law, University of Washington, Seattle and Research fellow at the Netherlands Institute for the Law of the Sea (NILOS) / Institute of Public International Law, University of Utrecht. Prof. Nollkaemper also lectures widely at foreign universities.

He is member of the Advisory Commission on Public International Law of the Netherlands; the Standing Committee of Experts in International Refugee and Criminal Law; and counsel at Bohler, Franken Koppen Wijngaarden advocaten in Amsterdam.

Editorial positions include Editor in Chief of the Netherlands Yearbook of International Law; member of the Editorial Board of Legal Issues of Economic Integration; and the Paperbacks on International and European Law (Kluwer Law).

His practical experience includes cases before the International Court of Justice, the European Court of Human Rights, the Special Court for Sierra Leone, the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, courts of the Netherlands and consultancy for a variety of international and national organisations.

Prof. Nollkaemper has published on issues of the relationship between international and domestic law, state responsibility, international environmental law, international water law and international criminal law.

Gregor Novak is a doctoral candidate at Yale Law School, from where he obtained an LL.M. in 2013 as a Fulbright Scholar and at the University of Vienna, from where he graduated in 2009. Previously, he has worked as a researcher on an ILDC-related project led by Professor August Reinisch at the University of Vienna, as a lecturer, a part-time research assistant, a judicial clerk, and a trainee at a transnationally operating law firm. In the 2013-14 academic year, Mr Novak will be clerking at the ICJ on a Yale Fellowship.

Opeoluwa Ogundokun reports on Nigeria for ILDC. Opeoluwa is a Senior Associate, Matrix-Solicitors, Lagos, Nigeria.

Asst. Prof. Dr. Kudret Özersay was born in Cyprus (1973). He graduated from Ankara University, Faculty of Political Science, Department of International Relations in 1995. He completed his MA thesis at Ankara University in the field of international law in 1998, and completed his PhD thesis titled "Legal Validity of the 1959-1960 Cyprus Treaties" at the Chair of International Law (Ankara University) in 2002. Since 2003 he has been a full-time faculty member at the Department of International Relations, Eastern Mediterranean University, Northern Cyprus.

Paolo Palchetti reports on Italy for ILDC. He is an Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Macerata.

Riccardo Pavoni is the coordinator for Italy's team of reporters and a member of the ILDC Editorial Board. He is currently Associate Professor of International Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Siena (Italy). He holds an MJur degree from the University of Oxford and is Associate Editor for the Italian Yearbook of International Law. His main specializations are international environmental law (he has recently published a monograph in Italian on biodiversity, biotechnology and international law: Biodiversità e biotecnologie nel diritto internazionale e comunitario, Giuffrè, Milano, 2004, pp. XVI-526) and the relationship between municipal and international law.

Francisco Pereira Coutinho has a degree (2002) and a PhD (2009) in law from the Faculdade de Direito da Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Portugal) and is currently a Law teacher at the Instituto Superior de Ciências Sociais e Políticas da Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal). Between 2005 and 2011 Francisco worked as a legal advisor at the Portuguese Diplomatic Institute.

Birgit Schlütter is a post-doctoral researcher and lecturer at the Research Centre for European Environmental Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Bremen. She is affiliated with the Multirights Project headed by Andreas Føllesdal at the Norwegian Centre for Human Rights, University of Oslo (2011-2015) and co-founder of the post-doctoral research network on Authority beyond states, AUSTAT. Selected publications include: Developments in Customary International Law (Martinus Nijhoff, 2010) and Aspects of Human Rights Interpretation by the UN Treaty Bodies, in Keller/Ulfstein (Eds), Human Rights Treaty Bodies (CUP, 2012).

Mateja Steinbrück Platise obtained her PhD degree from the University of Ljubljana (Slovenia) and her M.Jur degree from the University of Oxford. She is working as an assistant lawyer at the European Court of Human Rights and as a lecturer at the Law Faculty of the University of Hamburg.

Laura Precup-Pop is currently in her penultimate year of a Juris Doctor program at the University Sydney. She has graduated with honours from the University of Toronto, specialising in history and political science.

Joseph Powderly is pursuing a Ph.D. at the Irish Centre for Human Rights, National University of Ireland, Galway, having graduated with an LL.M. in International Human Rights Law in 2006. As a Doctoral Fellow, he researched a major project on human rights violations in Burma. He has received a Government of Ireland scholarship for his doctoral research on theories of judicial interpretation and the development of international criminal and international humanitarian law. He has lectured widely on human rights issues.

Alexander Pung is completing his Master of Laws at Monash University in 2008-09. He is also working as a Research Assistant with the Castan Centre for Human Rights Law.

Fabián Raimondo Assistant Professor of Public International Law, Maastricht University. Member of the Colegio de Abogados de La Plata (Argentina) and the List of Counsel before the International Criminal Court.

Mianko Ramaroson is a Doctoral candidate, Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria.

Principal publications:

  • Hye Young Lim and Mianko Ramaroson (2006) "A commentary of the decisions of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights in 2003" 10(2) Law, Democracy and Development (forthcoming)
  • Susan Precious and Mianko Ramaroson (2006) HIV/AIDS and human rights in SADC: South Africa (forthcoming)

Rohini Rangachari reports on India for ILDC. Rohini completed her Masters in European Business Law (2002) from the Université d'Aix-Marseille III, Aix-en-Provence, France and her LL.B. from Delhi University (2001) pursuant to her Masters in French Literature from New York University (1997). She is enrolled with the Bar Council of Delhi. Rohini's prior experience includes working as an Assistant Counsel at the International Court of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) in Paris, in the International Arbitration & Litigation Department of Shearman & Sterling, Paris and in the Mergers and Acquisitions Department of a renowned German law firm based in Stuttgart, Germany. She is presently working in the New Delhi office of Dua Associates on corporate law matters. Her publications include :

  • The Book Review, Reviewed Cases in the Mohammadan Law in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh by Asaf A.A. Fyzee, 2005
  • Lex Times, a Law Students Journal. Authored article on a "Brief Overview of the International Court of Arbitration", 2004
  • Lex Times, Editor-in-Chief, quarterly newspaper of "Students for the Promotion of International Law", a law students organization, New Delhi, India
  • The Book Review. Reviewed Intellectual Property Rights by Bibek Debroy, February 2001. Reviewed Uncommon Law by A.P. Herbert, Volume XXIII, Number 12, December 1999, New Delhi, India
  • Business Standard, Leading Indian Business Newspaper. Co-authored article on Information Technology Bill, 1999 in May 2000, New Delhi, India

Zane Ratniece is a Lawyer at the European Court of Human Rights. Previously she worked as EULEX Legal Officer to International Judges in Kosovo and an Associate Lawyer with a law firm in Riga. She has lectured and published in the areas of international law, including international humanitarian law and human rights law. She holds LLM in International and European Law from the University of Amsterdam and Qualification of Jurist from the University of Latvia. She is a member of the European Society of International Law. Her contributions are à titre personnel and any views do not necessary reflect the opinion of any of the institutions to which she has been or may be affiliated.

Dr Rosemary Rayfuse is an Associate Professor, Director of International Law Programs, Faculty of Law, The University of New South Wales.

August Reinisch is Professor of International Law and European Law in the Faculty of Law, University of Vienna. He specialises in international economic law, investment law, human rights obligations of non-state actors, extraterritorial jurisdiction, international organisations and state succession law. From 2004 to 2006 August Reinisch was Dean for International Relations of the Law Faculty of the University of Vienna. He has lectured in International Organisations law, European Community law and International Economic Law at the Austrian Diplomatic Academy, at the Danube University Krems, and at Bocconi University, Milan. He is currently a visiting professor at the Bologna Center of the Johns Hopkins University/School of Advanced International Studies and at the University of New South Wales, Sydney. August Reinisch also currently serves as arbitrator on the In Rem Restitution Panel according to the Austrian General Settlement Fund Law 2001 and as President of an UNCITRAL investment arbitration. He has also acted as an advisor to Austrian and foreign courts and is a member of the Bar of New York and Connecticut (admitted 1990).

His extensive list of publications includes International Organizations before National Courts (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press 2000), 'European Court Practice Concerning State Immunity from Enforcement Measures' in: 17 European Journal of International Law (2006), 803; 'The International Relations of National Courts: A Discourse on International Law Norms on Jurisdictional and Enforcement Immunity' in A. Reinisch/U. Kriebaum (eds.) The Law of International Relations (Utrecht, Eleven International Publishing 2007), and 'Accountability of International Organisations According to National Law' 36 Netherlands Yearbook of International Law (2005).

Eva Rieter, M.A. in law (Maastricht University), LL.M (University of Virginia, US), reports on the Netherlands for ILDC. She is completing a PhD dissertation on provisional measures in international human rights adjudication - which also includes discussion of ICJ and ITLOS case law. Assistant Professor Public International Law, Radboud University Nijmegen; previously lecturer public international law and research fellow human rights law, Maastricht University; publications on provisional measures and reparation, death threats, torture (including non-refoulement) and the death penalty, e.g. 'Interim Measures by the World Court to Suspend the Execution of An Individual: the Breard Case', in: 16(4) Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights 475 (1998)

Martin Roger is Legal Adviser to the Permanent Mission of Estonia to the United Nations, representing amongst others Estonia in the 6th (Legal) Committee of the General Assembly.

Publications:
International responsibility of a state for violations of erga omnes obligations, Juridica, VI, 2001; International Criminal Court and its implications to Estonian Defence Forces, Baltic Defence Review, No 10 Vol 2 (2003); Can acts of international terrorism be regarded as crimes against humanity? Yearbook of Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2005)

Cedric Ryngaert reports on Belgium for ILDC and is a research fellow at the Fund for Scientific Research Flanders, Institute for International Law, University of Leuven.

Aziz Tuffi Saliba, Dr. iur, LL.M. is a professor of Law at the Federal University of Minas Gerais (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais). Professor Saliba has been a visiting fellow at the Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies (University of Notre Dame, US) and at the Lauterpacht Centre of International Law (University of Cambridge, UK). He has authored or edited five books on International Law, Human Rights Law, and the United Nations. He reports on Brazilian case law for ILDC.

Elizabeth Salmón Gárate Lawyer for the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru and Doctorate in International Law (University of Sevilla, Spain). Professor at the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru School of Law and Academic Coordinator of the Institute for Democracy and Human Rights of the same university (IDEHPUCP) where she coordinates the Human Rights Master Program. Author of publications on Public International Law, International Human Rights Law, International Criminal Law, International Humanitarian Law and Transitional Justice.

William A Schabas is Professor of International Law at Middlesex University, London. He is also Chairman of the Irish Centre for Human Rights at the National University of Ireland, Galway, where he also holds the professorship in human rights law. He is also a Global Legal Scholar at the University of Warwick School of Law, a Visiting Professor at Queen's University Belfast, professeur associé at the Université du Québec à Montréal, and a 'door tenant' at 9 Bedford Row, London. Professor Schabas holds post-graduate degrees in history and in law from universities in Canada. He is the author of eighteen monographs and more than 225 articles dealing with international human rights law and international criminal law. Professor Schabas was a member of the Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission. He is an Officer of the Order of Canada and a Member of the Royal Irish Academy, and has an LLD honoris causa from Dalhousie University, Halifax.

Russell Schmidt reports for ILDC on Australia. He holds an LL.B. (Hons.) from Sydney Law School and a BA from the University of Sydney.

Gusel Schneider is currently studying towards her Juris Doctor degree at the University of Sydney (Australia). She holds a Bachelor of Laws degree from Moscow State University for International Relations (Russia) with a major in International Law. She also possesses a Master of Laws degree from Queensland University of Technology (Australia). Gusel has over seven years of legal experience with law firms in Russia and Australia.

Frank Schorkopf, Dr. iur., co-ordinating and reporting on Germany. Studies at University of Hamburg and London School of Economics, research assistant University of Hamburg, Chair: Prof. Dr. Meinhard Hilf, 1998-2001; research fellow at the Max-Planck-Institute for International Law, Heidelberg 2001-2002; law clerk at the Federal Constitutional Court, 2002-2005; since June 2005 research fellow at University of Bonn, Chair: Prof. Dr. Dr. Udo Di Fabio; recent publications: WTO - World Economic Order, World Trade Law, WTO Max Planck Commentaries on World Trade Law, Vol. 1, Leiden/Boston 2006 (with P.-T. Stoll); co-editor of "Terrorism as a Challenge for National and International Law: Security versus Liberty?", Berlin/Heidelberg 2004.

Dinah Shelton is the Patricia Roberts Harris Research Professor of Law, George Washington University Law School. She specialises in international law, human rights law, and international environmental law. Professor Shelton has taught at universities throughout the USA and Europe, including the University of Notre Dame, Stanford University, the University of California, Berkeley, the Université de Paris IX, Malakoff and the Université Robert Schumann, Strasbourg. She has also been a Consultant for the United Nations, European Community and the Council of Europe as well as a Judge at the International Court of Environmental Arbitration and Conciliation (elected 1997). In addition to her international law expertise, Professor Shelton has an in depth working knowledge of the American domestic courts system, having been a member of the California Bar since 1970, the United States District Court since 1974, and the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, 1988. Professor Shelton is also a member of the Editorial Board of the American Journal of International Law. Her extensive list of publications includes the prize-winning Remedies in International Human Rights Law (2d ed. 2004), Drafting of Environmental Laws (Geneva, UN Institute for Training and Research 2005), Judges Manual of International Environmental Law (co-authored with A.Kiss, Nairobi, UN Environment Program, 2005), Preventative Detention: A Comparative and International Law Perspective (Arlington, NP Engel, 1995).

Jon Stokholm has been a judge of the Supreme Court of Denmark since 2003. Prior to his appointment he was a practising lawyer in Copenhagen dealing mainly with international matters. In the years 1999-2003 he was president of The Danish Bar and Law Society.

Dr Sándor Szemesi is a university assistant lecturer (University of Debrecen, Faculty of Law, Department of Public International Law), member of International Law Association (ILA) Hungarian Branch.

Area of research: Non-discrimination in the practice of the European Court of Human Rights (tutor: Prof. Dr. Péter Kovács, judge of the Constitutional Court of Hungary).

Teaching lectures and seminars from public international law at University of Debrecen since 2003.

Publications and presentations concerning public international law, especially the practice of the European Court of Human Rights.

Dr Szemesi's curriculum vitae is available as a PDF.

Christian J. Tams (covering Germany) is professor of international law at the University of Glasgow. After completing his legal studies in Germany, he obtained an LL.M. and a Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge (U.K.). He has published mainly on questions of State responsibility, dispute settlement and investment arbitration, and has been involved in proceedings before the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea and the International Court of Justice.

Liam Thornton graduated with a First Class Honours BCL (International) Degree from University College Cork (NUI), Ireland in 2005. He was awarded a Government of Ireland postgraduate scholarship to fund his thesis on "Reception Conditions for Asylum Seekers: Meeting the Standards of International Human Rights Law?" Liam shall be Book Review Editor for the 2007 Edition of the Irish Yearbook of International Law.

Antonios Tzanakopoulos is University Lecturer in Public International Law at the University of Oxford and a Fellow of St Anne's College. He studied law in Athens, New York, and Oxford, and previously taught at University College London and the University of Glasgow, and as a visitor at King's College London and the University of Paris (Paris X Nanterre). Antonios is co-rapporteur of the ILA Working Group on Principles of International Law before National Courts and has served as an Associate Editor for ILDC. He is the author of Disobeying the Security Council (OUP 2011).

Prof. Dr. Harmen van der Wilt reports on the international criminal law cases from the Netherlands for ILDC. He is currently a Professor of International Criminal Law, University of Amsterdam. Formerly a lecturer at University of Maastricht and ad litem judge at the District Court of Roermond, the Netherlands. Numerous publications (both in Dutch and in English) include articles on Complicity in Genocide (the van Anraat-case) and Joint Criminal Enterprise in the Journal of International Criminal Justice.

Dries Van Eeckhoutte reports on Belgium for ILDC, and is Legal Advisor on International & European Environmental Policy at the Flemish government (Belgium) and Researcher at the Institute for International Law at the Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium). His research concerns the invocability of international law in the Belgian and European legal order, which resulted in several publications (click here for more information).

Marieke van Eik reports on the Netherlands for ILDC. She is an attorney with Böhler Franken Koppe Wijngaarden attorneys in Amsterdam and specialises in refugee cases, in particular cases involving exclusion under Article 1F of the 1951 UN Refugees Convention. She obtained her Masters in Law (LLM) from the University of Amsterdam.

Simon Vande Walle reports on Belgium for ILDC. He is an attorney at Linklaters De Bandt in Brussels, Belgium. He is a member of the Brussels and New York Bars and specialises in international litigation, representing both private clients and Sovereign States. He holds a law degree from Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium) and LL.M. degrees from Georgetown University Law Center (Washington DC, USA) as well as Kyushu University (Japan).

Juan Santos Vara is the coordinator for Spain’s team of reporters for ILDC. Associate Professor of International Law and European Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Salamanca (Spain). LLM in Law from the College of Europe. He has been a visiting Fellow at the Harvard Law School, at the Watson Institute for International Studies, Brown University and the King’s College London. His main areas of research are terrorism and human rights, universal jurisdiction and the external action of the EU. Santos Vara has extensively published in these areas. He participated in the works of the Center of Studies of Hague Academy of International Law and his contribution was selected for publication by the Academy (Extraordinary renditions: the interstate transfer of terrorist suspects without human rights limits, in M. Glennon; S. Sur (Ed.), Terrorism and International Law, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden, 2008).

Sten Verhoeven started his legal studies at the Katholieke Universiteit Brussel and obtained his degree of Candidate in Law in with distinction in 1999. Afterwards, he continued his legal study at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, where he received his law degree with distinction. in 2002. During 2002-2003, he studied International Relations and Conflict prevention at the same university. Furthermore, he participated twice in the Jessup International Law Moot Court for the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and reached the 37th place in the ranking of the Jessup Competition of 2002-2003. From the 1st of October 2003, he is an assistant in international law at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and is preparing a PhD entitled "Peremptory Norms in International Humanitarian Law". His main contributions include: "The Prohibition of Genocide as a Norm of Ius Cogens and Its Implications on the Enforcement on the Law of Genocide", International Criminal Law Review 2005, 401-415 (with J. Wouters); "Attacks by Private Actors and Self-Defence", Journal of Conflict and Security Law 2005, 289-320 (with T. Ruys); "Case Note Prosecutor v. Naletilic and Martinovic", in A. Klip en G. Sluiter, Annotated Case Law of the ICTY (forthcoming).

Maarten Vidal is a researcher at the Institute for International Law Research topics: local transfrontier co-operation - treaty law - law of international organizations Principal international publications:

  • J. Wouters en M. Vidal, "An international law perspective on tax treaties and domestic law", in G. Maisto (ed.), EC and International Tax Law Series. Vol. 2: Tax treaties and domestic law, Amsterdam, IBFD, 2006, 13-35.
  • J. Wouters & M. Vidal, "Article IV-441", to be published in L.
  • Burgorgue, A. Levade & F. Picod (eds.), Traité établissant une Constitution pour l'Europe. Commentaire article par article, I, Brussels, Bruylant, 2006.

(more information about publications in Dutch is available here)

André von Walter, LL.M., MPA, covering Germany. Studies at the Universities of Cologne and Paris I (Panthéon-Sorbonne); Diplôme d'Etudes Approfondies (DEA) in International Economic Law, 2000; Studies at the Ecole Nationale d'Administration (ENA), 2000-2002; Consultant for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2003; since October 2003 Research Fellow at the Institute for Public International Law of the University of Bonn.

Jan Erik Wetzel, LL.M., covering Germany for ILDC. Studies at the Universities of Bonn (Germany), Tennessee (USA), Helsinki (Finland), and Leicester (UK); Research Fellow in Cologne and Bonn (2001-2007); Visiting Fellow at the City University of Hong Kong in 2007/2008; since August 2008 Senior Lecturer at the University of Lincoln (UK).

Nigel White is currently Professor of Public International Law at the University of Nottingham, formerly Professor of International Law at the University of Sheffield. In addition to publishing numerous articles and essays, he is author of several books including Keeping the Peace: The United Nations and the Maintenance of International Peace and Security (Manchester University Press, 2nd ed, 1997), The Law of International Organisations (Manchester University Press, 2nd ed., 2005), The UN System: Toward International Justice (Lynne Rienner, 2002), and Democracy Goes to War: British Military Deployments under International Law (Oxford University Press, 2009). He is also editor of a number of leading collections, primarily Collective Security Law (Ashgate, 2004), and co-editor of The UN, Human Rights and Post Conflict Situations (Manchester University Press, 2005), International Conflict and Security Law (Cambridge University Press, 2005), European Security Law (Oxford University Press, 2007), and International Law and Dispute Settlement (Hart, 2010). He is co-editor-in-chief of the Journal of Conflict and Security Law published by Oxford University Press.

Jakob Wurm is research assistant to Prof. Dr. August Reinisch at the University of Vienna, Faculty of Law, Department of European, International and Comparative Law.

Since graduating in law from the University of Vienna (Austria), he has gained professional experience in distinguished law firms in Vienna and during an internship at Austrian courts. During his postgraduate Master Program ("European Master in Law and Economics" - EMLE, 2003) he studied at renowned institutions, such as the Rotterdam Erasmus University and the University of Bologna (Italy). Further, he was Visiting Scholar at Boalt Hall, School of Law (University of Berkeley, California).

He has been involved in various publications of the Department of European, International and Comparative Law, such as notably the 4th edition of the Austrian Handbook on International Law (Vienna: Manz Verlag) (2004), 651 pp, and the Austrian Review of International and European Law (Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers) vol 8 (2005), 596 pp, vol 9 (2006), 499 pp.

In addition to his position as a national reporter for Austria since the inception of ILDC, he is ILDC Associate Editor since May 2005.

Elizabeth Wye is studying the JD at the University of Sydney and works part time as a magazine feature writer.

Sienho Yee is University Professor and Chief Expert, National Key Research Center, Wuhan University Institute of International Law, China. He specialises in public international law, especially the jurisprudence of the ICJ and questions relating to the structure of the international legal system, and has published extensively in these areas. One of his publications has been quoted in the separate opinions of Judge Elaraby in the Legality of Use of Force cases before the ICJ, and discussed by three governments. In addition to his research relating to the ICJ, Professor Yee has acted as an occasional expert to governmental authorities in international dispute settlement and lawmaking and is thus actively involved on issues relating to the relationship between domestic and international law. Professor Yee is also Editor-in-Chief of the Chinese Journal of International Law, the leading forum for articles on international law by Chinese scholars and on international law issues relating to China. Professor Yee therefore brings to the ILDC project valuable insight into developments of international law in China, and other parts of Asia and the developing world.

Andreas R. Ziegler reports on Switzerland and Liechtenstein for ILDC. He is currently a Professor of Law at the University of Lausanne, and Visiting Professor at the University of New South Wales (Sydney). Previous notable positions include Head of the International and European Economic Law Section, Swiss Ministry of Trade and Industry, and Senior Officer EFTA Secretariat. Trade and Environment in the European Community (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1996) and Introduction au droit international public (Stämpfli, Bern, 2006) are two of his major publications.

Leo Zwaak is an Associate Professor at the School of Law, Utrecht University and Senior Researcher at the Netherlands Institute of Human Rights (SIM), where he teaches European Human Rights Law and Human Rights and Criminal Law respectively. He is visiting Professor at Washington College at the American University, Washington DC and at the University of Peace in San Jose, Costa Rica. He is also the co-ordinator of the LL.M programme International Human Rights and Criminal Justice.

His research interests concern the European Convention and Court of Human Rights, topics on which he has published and lectured widely. He is the Co-editor of the Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights. He is inter alia the co-author of: Theory and Practice of the European Convention on Human Rights. Fourth edition, Intersentia, 2006; The Role of the Council of Europe and its Committee of Ministers: Analysing the Efficiency of Measures Taken under Article 46(2) of the ECHR, Changing Perceptions Of Sovereignty and Human Rights: Essays in Honour of Cees Flinterman, Ineke Boerefijn and Jenny Goldschmidt (eds.) Antwerp - Oxford - Portland: Intersentia, 2008; Leo Zwaak, Yves Haeck and, Clara Burbano Herrera, - Strasbourg Court takes away any Remaining Doubts and Broadens its Pan-European Protection: Non-compliance with a Provisional Measure Automatically leads to a Violation of the Right of Individual Application...or Doesn’t it?: Strasbourg Court Takes Away Any Remaining Doubts and Broadens Its Pan-European Protection, European Constitutional Law Review, Volume 4 (2008). T.M.C. Asser Press The Hague.