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Corruption, Fight against »

Kenneth W Abbott
1 The fight against corruption has produced a remarkable cascade of international rule-making since the early 1990s. It includes a true multilateral convention as well as numerous regional and plurilateral treaties , soft law instruments, and policies. These instruments address a broad range of conduct and prescribe varied State measures; some have robust implementation mechanisms. While there remain significant substantive gaps, the principal challenge today is to ensure adoption of, and compliance with, the existing legal and normative framework. 2 In the early...

Public Private Partnership »

Kenneth W Abbott
1 The terms ‘partnership’ and ‘public private partnership’ (‘PPP’) have varied meanings in international policy. Some usages are broad: the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (‘Rio Declaration’; Stockholm Declaration [1972] and Rio Declaration [1992] ) and the United Nations (‘UN’) Millennium Declaration ( United Nations, Millennium Declaration ) call for a ‘global partnership’ among States , civil society , and the private sector (see also Corporations in International Law ). Other usages are narrow: many governments and development agencies, such as...