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Part Two General Provisions, Article 1 D »

Mutaz M Qafisheh, Valentina Azarova
From: The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol: A Commentary
Edited By: Andreas Zimmermann, Felix Machts (Assistant), Jonas Dörschner (Assistant)
D. This Convention shall not apply to persons who are at present receiving from organs or agencies of the United Nations other than the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees protection or assistance. D. Cette Convention ne sera pas applicable aux personnes qui bénéficient actuellement d'une protection ou d'une assistance de la part d'un organisme ou d'une institution des Nations Unies autre que le Haut Commissariat des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés. When such protection or assistance has ceased for any reason, without the position of such persons being...

Belligerency »

Valentina Azarova, Ido Blum
1 Belligerency is the condition of being in fact engaged in war. A nation is deemed a belligerent even when resorting to war in order to withstand or punish an aggressor. A declaration of war is not required to create a state of belligerency. Through the application of the laws of war to civil wars, the doctrine challenges the State-centric model of international law, which goes back to the US civil war during which it was affirmed by the US Supreme Court in the 1862 Prize Cases and then codified in the 1863 Lieber Code . 2 Traditionally, the doctrine of...

Part III Thematic Chapters, A Means and Methods of Warfare, 3 The 2014 Gaza War: reflections on jus ad bellum, jus in bello , and accountability, C The International Criminal Court and local investigations »

Sharon Weill, Valentina Azarova
From: The War Report: Armed Conflict in 2014
Edited By: Annyssa Bellal

Part III Thematic Chapters, A Means and Methods of Warfare, 3 The 2014 Gaza War: reflections on jus ad bellum, jus in bello , and accountability, Introduction »

Sharon Weill, Valentina Azarova
From: The War Report: Armed Conflict in 2014
Edited By: Annyssa Bellal

Part III Thematic Chapters, A Means and Methods of Warfare, 3 The 2014 Gaza War: reflections on jus ad bellum, jus in bello , and accountability, B Principal violations of IHL during the 2014 Gaza hostilities »

Sharon Weill, Valentina Azarova
From: The War Report: Armed Conflict in 2014
Edited By: Annyssa Bellal

Part III Thematic Chapters, A Means and Methods of Warfare, 3 The 2014 Gaza War: reflections on jus ad bellum, jus in bello , and accountability, A The right to self-defence under jus ad bellum and the Gaza 2014 conflict »

Sharon Weill, Valentina Azarova
From: The War Report: Armed Conflict in 2014
Edited By: Annyssa Bellal

Suspension of Hostilities »

Valentina Azarova, Ido Blum
1 A suspension of hostilities is an agreed cessation of the fighting within a period of war. A number of terms are used to depict a suspension of hostilities, namely, truce, armistice , and ceasefire . 2 Truce is the oldest term, which originally had a religious connotation. A ‘Truce of God’ ( Treuga Dei ) was a measure by which the Catholic Church suspended warfare on certain days for religious reasons. The term ‘ceasefire’ was introduced into international legal parlance in the post-World War II era. Although some scholars ascribe to truce and ceasefire...