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Canals »

Maurizio Arcari
1 Canals are artificial waterways that for purposes of international legal regulation (see also Traffic and Transport, International Regulation ) must be distinguished from natural waterways such as international watercourses or international straits ( Straits, International ). There are several kinds of such man-made waterways, that can be classified according to the uses served or to the geographical situation. Maritime or interoceanic canals connecting different portions of the open seas, and inland canals duplicating rivers or improving navigable portions of...

Panama Canal »

Maurizio Arcari
1 While the idea of piercing the isthmus of Central America to connect the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans dates back to the Spanish colonial age, it became a concrete plan only during the 19th century. At the first Pan-American Congress held in Panama in 1826 the construction of an inter-oceanic canal ( Canals ) was considered as a common American project for the benefit of all States (see also International Law, Regional Developments: Latin America ). 2 The legal history of the inter-oceanic canal may be said to begin in 1846, when the United States and New...

Suez Canal »

Maurizio Arcari
1 Different canals connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea , and using the waters of the Nile River , are reported to have existed in Egypt at the time of the Pharaohs, from about 1900 BCE. In 776, existing canal routes were closed by Caliph Abu-Jafar-al-Mansour for strategic reasons. Plans for the construction of a new maritime canal were considered by the Venetians toward the end of the 15th century, and later on by different French governments until the commission created by Napoleon in 1798, but they were never implemented. 2 The project for the...