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Edited By: Elizabeth Wilmshurst, Françoise Hampson, Charles Garraway, Noam Lubell, Dapo Akande
From: Practitioners' Guide to Human Rights Law in Armed Conflict
Daragh Murray
Edited By: Elizabeth Wilmshurst, Françoise Hampson, Charles Garraway, Noam Lubell, Dapo Akande

Part B Issues, Institutions, and Personalities, A, Active Personality Principle »

Dapo Akande
From: The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice
Edited By: Antonio Cassese (Editor-in-Chief)

Part C Cases, A, Arrest Warrant Case »

Dapo Akande
From: The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice
Edited By: Antonio Cassese (Editor-in-Chief)

Part B Issues, Institutions, and Personalities, C, Civil Remedies for International Crimes »

Dapo Akande
From: The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice
Edited By: Antonio Cassese (Editor-in-Chief)

Part I, 3 Classification of Armed Conflicts: Relevant Legal Concepts »

Dapo Akande
From: International Law and the Classification of Conflicts
Edited By: Elizabeth Wilmshurst
International humanitarian law governs the conduct of participants in an armed conflict. In order to determine whether this breach of law applies to situations of violence it is necessary to assess first of all whether the situation amounts to an ‘armed conflict’. However, international humanitarian law does not recognize a unitary concept of armed conflict but, rather, recognizes two types of armed conflicts: international and non-international. This chapter examines the history of the distinction between these two categories of armed conflict, the consequences...

Contents »

Edited By: Elizabeth Wilmshurst, Françoise Hampson, Charles Garraway, Noam Lubell, Dapo Akande
From: Practitioners' Guide to Human Rights Law in Armed Conflict
Daragh Murray
Edited By: Elizabeth Wilmshurst, Françoise Hampson, Charles Garraway, Noam Lubell, Dapo Akande

Contents »

Dame Rosalyn Higgins DBE, QC, Philippa Webb, Dapo Akande, Sandesh Sivakumaran, James Sloan
From: Oppenheim's International Law: United Nations
Rosalyn Higgins, Philippa Webb, Dapo Akande, Sandesh Sivakumaran, James Sloan

Part 4 Adjudication Within the United Nations System, 31 Criminal Tribunals Established by, or in Relationship with, the UN »

Dame Rosalyn Higgins DBE, QC, Philippa Webb, Dapo Akande, Sandesh Sivakumaran, James Sloan
From: Oppenheim's International Law: United Nations
Rosalyn Higgins, Philippa Webb, Dapo Akande, Sandesh Sivakumaran, James Sloan
This chapter covers criminal tribunals established by, or in relationship with, the United Nations (UN). It includes the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia; the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda; the International Criminal Court; The Special Court for Sierra Leone; the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia; the Special Tribunal for Lebanon; the Kosovo Regulation 64 Panels; the East Timor Special Panels for Serious Crimes; and the Bosnia and Herzegovina War Crimes Chamber. The chapter discusses the establishment and jurisdiction of each court or tribunal; its composition; its relationship with other bodies; resources and completion mechanisms; residual issue; and legacy.

Part 3 The United Nations: What it Does, 19 Democratic Governance »

Dame Rosalyn Higgins DBE, QC, Philippa Webb, Dapo Akande, Sandesh Sivakumaran, James Sloan
From: Oppenheim's International Law: United Nations
Rosalyn Higgins, Philippa Webb, Dapo Akande, Sandesh Sivakumaran, James Sloan
Democratic principles are ‘woven throughout the normative fabric of the United Nations’ (UN); and are grounded in the UN Charter, despite the fact that the word ‘democracy’ cannot be found in the Charter. One of the purposes of the UN is the development of friendly relations among nations ‘based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples’. Democratic governance is also based on individual rights in international human rights law. This chapter discusses the underpinnings of democratic governance; areas of UN assistance; political pluralism; electoral assistance; strengthening and building institutions; civic education; civil society; free and independent media; promoting the rule of law; and protection and promotion of human rights.

Part 3 The United Nations: What it Does, 21 Disaster Relief »

Dame Rosalyn Higgins DBE, QC, Philippa Webb, Dapo Akande, Sandesh Sivakumaran, James Sloan
From: Oppenheim's International Law: United Nations
Rosalyn Higgins, Philippa Webb, Dapo Akande, Sandesh Sivakumaran, James Sloan
This chapter begins by discussing the notion of disaster relief. Disaster relief is the relief provided by entities following a disaster, for present purposes, by actors outside the state affected by the disaster. As with the notion of a disaster, different instruments take different approaches to the content of disaster relief. The international law of disaster relief exists as a patchwork of norms. There are a few multilateral conventions in the area, which regulate the response to specific types of disasters, or to particular aspects of disasters. Other conventions of more general applicability also contain provisions that concern disaster relief. The remainder of the chapter covers the historical provision of disaster relief; the role of the United Nations (UN) in the creation of international law relating to disaster relief; and the provision of disaster relief, including coordination, cooperation, legal standards, funding, and reporting.