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New Editorial: The Congress of Aachen [Aix-la-Chapelle] (1818) and the Completion of the Vienna System

The Vienna system, the political and legal order of Europe after the fall of Napoleonic France, rested on two main pillars. If any leading principle could be discovered in the territorial settlement that was reached at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, it was the restoration of the balance of power. The principle was invoked to contain France by strengthening its neighbours to the east—in Italy and Germany—and to the north—the United Kingdom and the Netherlands—and to reorganize the defunct Holy Roman Empire into a confederation of just under 40 states led by Austria and Prussia. The other pillar, which became known as the ‘Concert of Europe’, was an agreement between the four leading powers that had brought Napoleon Bonaparte (1769–1821) to his knees—Austria, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia—to sustain their alliance against France and jointly assume responsibility for the territorial status quo and the peace of Europe.

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December 31, 2018

New Editorial: The Congress of Aachen [Aix-la-Chapelle] (1818) and the Completion of the Vienna System

Randall Lesaffer looks at the Vienna system, the political and legal order of Europe after the fall of Napoleonic France, in the latest monthly editorial.

November 9, 2018

New Editorial: The End of the First World War on the Western Front

On the centenary of the 11 November 1918 armistice, Randall Lesaffer looks at the end of the First World War in the latest monthly editorial.

October 19, 2018

New Editorial: The Wars of Louis XIV in Treaties (Part V): The Peace of Nijmegen (1678–1679)

Randall Lesaffer discusses the peace of Nijmegen in the latest of The Wars of Louis XIV in Treaties.

September 14, 2018

New Editorial: The Wars of Louis XIV in Treaties (Part IV): The Second Peace of Westminster (19 February 1674)

Randall Lesaffer looks at the second peace of Westminster in the latest of The Wars of Louis XIV in Treaties.