Janus-faced Mediation: A Treaty for the Pacification of Greece, 1826–1827
By: Viktorija Jakjimovska
Image credit: "The Battle of Navarino, 20 October 1827" by Thomas Luny, public domain via Wikimedia Commons.
The 19th century brought civil wars to the forefront of the international legal agenda. Hostilities within the boundaries of one state were not seen as an international matter except insofar as they constituted a direct threat to the interests of third states, or, more generally, to the equilibrium and repose of Europe. The Greek War of Independence (1821–1832) offers a glimpse into 19th-century third-state attempts at mediation in civil wars. Such practice posed salient questions on the status of a non-state actor on the international plane, the perceived limits of mediation, and the blurry lines between mediation and intervention in the context of civil wars.